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Ranters were an English sect came to prominent after the fall of Levellers movement under Cromwell during 1649. To a certain extend the Ranter filled some of the same urban populist views of the Levellers. The Ranters filled some of the void left by the Levellers, and its benefited its membership rolls from the working lower classes. Unfortunately the Rump Parliament, also saw the Ranters as another potential social, and political radical movement. After passing some public acts against the Ranter movement, the Ranters basically became outcasts in the opinions of the current legal system, and the police. Ranter were arrested and jailed, other simply stayed under the radar, also afraid of jail time. The voice of the movement did not totally disappear over night, even in London. The roots of the sect might date back to the early Civil War period. Our knowledge of this group was heavily influenced by the local press of the day, and it reporting which has been questioned. Ranters held a central core of shared belief that might vary in their own individual views. The newspapers of the period promoted stories of libertines, and wanton violence to local Ranters, often of questionable research. The Ranters also suffered like the Leveller movement as being to socially liberal against the status quo. Politically it may have been profitable to support the Parliament policy. During the period some have referred to the Ranters as nonconformists, freethinkers, and religious libertines. They were ascribed with tendency towards violence from the press. Sometime known by the labels of "high attainers" and "high professors". These term were ascribed to them as a insult by their critics.

George Fox, the Quaker, seems to have had some personal acquaintance with the Ranters. Fox refers to the Ranters in some of this writings. He refers to a more moderate members, and and maybe a more scholarly wing of the sect in their writings. Fox indicated that many former Ranters later joined the Quakers. Not a sign of violent, or wanton behavior? Much of our current information on the Ranters was based on information provided by their opponents writings, the the local press. The factual nature of the Ranter organization, or the lack of it has been questioned by recent scholars. Ranters existed, but a clear picture of their place in that society is still somewhat unclear. There are new scholarly research interests in the sect.

Ranterism may have some of its roots in the Medieval Brethren of the Free Spirit or the Beghards, a 14th Century heretical group, and the heresy of the Free Spirit. They also subscribed to the "Age of the Spirit" as foretold by Joachim of Fiore (1132?-1202), a major Christian scholar of the period. He was a Italian Cistercian monk, a theologian, author of religious works, a Christian Mystic, and a prophet for some of a new Third Age. His writings have been both praised, and condemned down through the ages. Both the Franciscan and Dominican Orders held him in high regard, others of the Church were not. Unfortunately various dissident, or radials sects over time have quoted Fiore as a self-justifications for their nonconformist philosophy. and actions.

The English Ranter, or Raunter beginnings may date from the mid-1640. The exact usage of the designation Ranter on a contemporary basis may lack some precision for modern reference points. There was some commonality with the early Adamites sect that was also vilified by the local press for their reported wanton behavior, and charges of wife swapping, etc. The Ranter also had their time on the public stage, but seemed to fade from the pubic conscience, and the press after 1650.

The "Ranting Principles" according to Gerrard Winstanley (1609?-60?), a leader of the English Digger Movement during 1649-50. They denoted a general lack of moral values or restrain in their worldly pleasures. The Alehouses, and inns were the common venues, or haunts of Ranter activity according to Winstanley. Winstanley and the Ranters did share a few social points in common while still active.

London became one of the major centers of English Ranter activity. There seems not to have been any formal association, or any structure at the national level. A casual form of mutual interactions at a certain level may be assumed between to the titular leaders, and large population centers, such as London. Not unlike the Muggletonians, their meeting halls may have just been a particular inn, or local alehouse in the neighborhood where they might meet, drink, play games, and meet women not unlike other Englishmen of the period. It was the ascribed lack of moral restrains, or the unrestrained demeanor of the Ranters that set them apart in the minds of the public normal from the newspaper reports.

Ranter were also sometimes referred to as ":Freethinkers" someone who might reject the religious, and or the social values of that community community. Ranters have been characterized as being quasi-millennium, the Second Coming message which was popular during this period in their outlook, which is apparent from some of its author All Ranters may have not have held all of those published views, either for or against.

Ranters embraced the general concept of the "indwelling spirit", a form of religious perfection. Whatever was done in the Spirit was considered justifiable to a Ranter. Man was therefore free of Sin and the Laws of Moses. This was commonly known as Antinomianism which many radical dissidents of the period also espoused. They were often labelled as religious libertines in the public minds of the period. Ranters as a sect may not have had a stong religious motivation to form religious missions. An organized religious authority with a set religious creed was generally rejected as a basic tenet. Ranter knew what they did nor need.

As with others nonconformists during this period, the very nature of religion was being called into question. Everyman having the Spirit within them, believed hey had no need for a risen Savior to wash away their sins, or the Bible as a road map to God. Heaven and Hell, the Resurrection and the final Judgment were all part of his Life here on Earth. A similar message was also voice by other groups, and individuals

Outward forms of religion were rejected. Even the Holy considered Bible was not considered the Word of God to follow, once having attained the "e;Indwelling Spirit". As everything comes from Nature, so should everything should be held in common for all. A class structure of rich and poor, or the State and Religion exercising power and control over society were commonly held values shared by Familists, Quakers, and others of the period.

Contemporaries of the period often compared the Ranters and the Quakers as being cut from the same bolt of cloth. The Quakers were generally considered to be of slightly better quality. They both shared many of the same basic militant societal values. Early Quakers before 1660 engaged in radical theology of change, and some carried weapons.

Ranters and some Quakers of the period were known to cavort in the all together. Nudity in itself was not a manifestation of Ranter beliefs. The shedding of outer garments by saints, holy men, and prophets has a long biblical context. Shock value, the rejection of worldly goods, and all men being equal in the sight of God were common motivations to shed the mantels of society

Nudity in all its forms was considered a major societal taboo during the period. Ranters and some others, like the Quakers might paraded nude in public for the shock value. Those who shed their clothing in public were not necessarily members of any specific sects.

The Adamites of the early 1640's were often stereotyped in the nude. These same iconographic images were later transferred to the Ranters by printers of the period possible to inflame tensions of the period, or to sell papers

John Robin, [fl. 1650-1652] was a prominent Ranter leader. He became a stereotypical image of the period as a form of propaganda to discredit its members in scoiety. Ranters were alleged to have engaged in wife swapping, illicit sex, and other wanton activities against the societal morals of the day according to their opponents.

Laurence Claxson (1615-1667), or better known as Laurence Clarkson was also a prominent radical of the period. Among his many associations, he was a Ranter leader in Cambridge. His publication: A Single Eye All Light, no Darkness (1650) landed him in prison. His pamphlet was ordered to be seized and burned that September. He later converted to Muggletonianism in 1658. His publication: The Lost sheep found ... (1660) describes his own religious journey including those as a Ranter.

Abiezer Coppe (1619-1672), a companion of Clarkson, and who like Clarkson was imprisoned for acts against the public welfare, and for his own radical writings. His publications: Some Sweet Sips of Some Spirituall Wine (1649), and A Fiery Flying Roll (1649) landed him in prison until 1651. Coppe had once been an active supporter of the London Particular Baptists in the late 1640's.

Coppe's writings show an avowed Ranter in his written opinions. Whether or not his writings express his own personal points of view, or are rather a reflection of the Ranter sect leaders as a whole is still a matter of disagreement among some scholars. There is no denying the radical nature of Coppe's writings, or their affect on the public at large of the period.

The publication of the works by Clarkson, and Coppe in 1649-50 send a stir throughout Parliament. The potential rise of a Ranter antinomianism movement clearly frightened many of its moderate, and puritan leaning members of Parliament. Their Adultery Act of 10 May 1650 was passed by the Rump Parliament against the perceived dissident influence on religious societal norms by Ranter writings. The Blasphemy Act of 9 August 1650 was directed against the dissident Ranters works, and any who might hold similar schismatic views. The perception of the fear may have been greater than its reality. There was a great deal of social and political unrest in the streets of London, and in the halls of power during than 1650's. The Ranters only helped to add to the general fear, discontent in society.

There was a large amount of writing during the 1650 by, and against the Ranters for their radical views. Two Ranter writers should also be noted: Joseph Salmon (fl. 1647-56), and Jacob Bauthumley. Both writers represent slightly different points of view within Ranterism, and were sometimes over looked by the more sensational press. That the Ranters questioned the religious and social values of English society were not new. The Ranters for their part only offered a slightly different vision, if somewhat more dissident, of the Second Coming. Religious ferver ran high in London during this period.

During 1650-51, the London press became more interested, and picked up on a new Ranter sect. Newspaper publishers wanted larger readership for the bottom line. Scandal, death, and violence were always good paper sellers.There were charges of "yellow journalism" during this period at many different levels.

There was a reported incident, January of 1651, in the City of London at Moor Lane involving wanton behavior at a local alehouse. The subsequent arrests, examinations, and trials were publicized in the local newspapers as Ranter related incidents. There may have been bad reporting, or just a good story to play up without much factual information the next day. Interest in the Ranters generally declined after 1652. Ranter activity reportedly continued into the Restoration (1660) but too a much lesser degree of reporting.

Contemporary writings often portrayed the Ranters as prominent group of individuals, some with extreme views, and actions. The strange case of one Mary Adams, [fl. 1652-76] from Tillingham, Essex. In 1652, she called herself the Virgin Mary. She claimed to had conceived a child by the Holy Ghost, which she claimed was to be the new Savior of the World. A child was born severely disfigured according to the reports. The baby only lived shortly, and died. Mary was placed under lock and key possible for her metal health issues. Mary was labelled with Ranter leanings at the time, which may have been questionable given her mental state.

And actual numbers of individuals Ranters may be difficult to estimate. Ranters became prominent after the downfall of the Leveller movement in 1650. After 1654, the sect tended to fade into the background of the larger political issues of the period.

As a organized group the Ranters may have not been a large sect in total numbers. Local units might be found in some of the larger cities. What they lacked in numbers, was probably off set by the perceived shock and terror values to the general public in the press. The press may have used the Ranters as a straw men to help sell their newspapers, has been suggested by some. George Fox, the Quaker leader, indicated that many Ranters were converted to Quakerism after the Restoration (1660).

The Ranters simply chipped away at the exterior veneer of local society not unlike the earlier Adamites had in the newspapers of its day. London was not unfamiliar with its wanton libertines. Radical dissident religious sects were also not new. The Ranters might make some citizens more uncomfortable walking the streets of London at night, but how was different? For all of the efforts to cast the English Ranters as the new "Boggy Men" in society by the press, the grey men in the Halls of Power were may have been more concerned with the Levellers printing press, or the Fifth Monarchy Men, or the Baptists that were known to have stores of weapons, and wealthy financial backers.

Some recent scholarly debate has called into question the actual status of this radical group after 1650. Ranters may have been used as a propaganda tool by the local press, or by other sects of the period. Modern scholars and research historians are still trying to fill the complete puzzle that are the Ranters. They continue to finding new parts to the larger puzzle with access to new electronic tools to access the vast mountains of information sitting in government depositories, public and private institutions, and libraries across Great Britain and the world. Over time we will have a fuller picture of the Ranter, and who they were. [Ed. Note; Consult] J.C. Davis; and, McGregor, J.F., Debate (1993) Past & Present 140


Primary Sources

[Anon.] The Arraignment and Tryall with a Declaration of the Ranters also, ... (1650); [ British Library: E.620 (3)][Thomason tracts: 95:E.630(3)] [Wing (2nd ed.) A3748] [ESTCR206376]

[Anon.] A Justification of the Mad Crew in their waies and principles, or, The Madness and Weakness of God in Man ... (1650); [ British Library: E.609 (18)] [Thomason Tracts; E:609(18)] [Wing (2nd ed.). J1261] [ESTCR205968]

[Anon.] The Ranters Declaration with Their new Oath and Protestation; ... (1650); [Thomason Tracts: 95:E.620(2)] [Wing (2nd ed.) S6087] [British Library: E.620 (2)] [ESTCR206375]

[Anon.] The Ranters Ranting: or, A True Relations of a sort of People called Ranters, ... (1650)

[Anon.] The Ranters Recantation: And their Sermon Delivered at a meeting on Tuesday last, in White-Chappel, ... [1650]; [ British Library: E.620 (10)] [Thomason Tracts: 95.E.620)10)] [ESTCR206279]

[Anon.] The Ranters Religion, or, A Faithfull and Infallible Narrative of their Damnable and Diobolical Opinions ... (1650); [British Library: E.619 (8)] [Thomason Tracts: 95:E.619(8)] [Wing (2nd ed.) R253] [ESTCR206367]

[Anon.] The Rovting of the Ranters being a full relation of their Uncivil Carriages, and Blasphemous Words and Actions at their mad Meetings, ... (1650); [British Library: E.616 (9)][Thomason Tracts: 94:E.616(9)] [Wing (2nd ed. R2055] [ESTCR203427]

[Anon.] Hell Broke Loose, or, the Notorious Design of the Wicked Ranters, Discovered on Sunday Last at Black-Freyers ... [1651]; [1651] [EEb,1640-1700; 2430:2] [Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) H1379] [ESTCR231010]

[Anon.] The Ranters Creed. Being a true copie of the Examinations of a Blasphemous sort of people, commonly called Ranters, whose names are herein Particularised, Together with the name of their Pretended Gold Almighty, and their False Prophet ... (1651); [EEb,1641-1700; 1044:2] [Wing R250] [ESTCR33766]

[Anon.] The Ranters Reasons Resolved to nothing, or, The Fustification instread of the Justification of the mad crew ... (1651); [Wing B251a]

[Anon.] Strange Nevves fron Newgate and the Old-Baily: The Proofs, Examinations, Declarations, Indictments, Convictions, and Confessions of I. Collins, and T. Reeve, two of the Ranters taken in More-Lane, ... (1651); [British Library: E.622 (3)] [Thomason Tracts: 95:E.622(3)] [Wing (2nd ed.) S5897] [ESTCR206429]

[Anon.], Strange news from Newgate, or, A Relation how the Ghost of Colledge the Protestant-joyner Appeared to Hone the Joyner since his Condemnation being a Account of the whole Discourse that past between them (1683); [EEb, 1641-1700; 802:22] [Wing S5898]

[Anon.] The Ranters Monster: Being a true Relation of one Mary Adams, living at Tillingham in Essex, who named herself the Virgin Mary (1652); [British Library: E.658 (6)] [Thomason Tracts: 101:E.658(6)] [Wing (2nd ed.) R251] [ESTCR206673]

[Anon.] St. Mary, Whitehapel. May 19, 1788. Sir, you are most Earnestly Requested to attend the Church to-morrow morning, to elect and chuse Forty Trustees for the Year ensuing; and to Consider of a Proper mode of turning out all Atheists, Diests, Wesleys, Methodists, Free-Thinkers, Quakers, ... Ranters, Bawlers, Canters, ... [1788] [ESTCT192843]

Barclay, Robert, [1648-1690 ],. The Anarchy of the Ranters, and other Libertines, ... (1676); [18th Century; reel 4138, no. 01] [ESTCR10444] [Wing (2nd ed., 1994), B718] [Ebb,1641-1700; 304:(15) ]

______, [Another ed.] (1726) [ESTCT64167]

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______, [Another ed.] (1770); [ESTCW18483]

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______, A Treatise on Christian Discipline, Formerly published by Robert Barclay, under the title of The Anarchy of the Ranters, and other Libertines [1790?; ] [ESTCT149153 ]

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______, and Penn, William [1644-1718 ].

Bauthumley, Jacob, [fl. 1650 ], The Light and Dark Sides of God, Or a plain and brief discourse, ... (1650); [British Library: E.1353 (2)] [Thomason Tracts: 178:E.1353(2)] [Wing (2nd ed., 1994) B1165A] [ESTCR16169 ]

______, [Another ed. ] (1650); [EEb, 1641-1700; 1632:65 ] [Wing B1165B]

Baxter, Richard,[1615-1691], Plain Scripture Proof of Infant Church Membership (1651); [ESTCR209560 ] [Wing (2nd ed.,1994).B1344 ]

Bloomfield, M.W., "Joachim of Flora. A critical survey of his teachings, sources, biography, and influences" In Traditio, v. 13, (1957)

______, and Reeves, M.E., "e;The penetration of Joachism into northern Europe "e; Spectrum, 29,1954

Burthall, Raunce, [ ], An Old Bridle for a vvilde Asse-Colt, [ Thomason Tracts: 94:E.615(9)] [Wing (2nd ed.) B6147 ] [ESTCR106546]

Claxton [Clarkson], Laurence,[1615-1667], Truth released from prison, to it former libertie. ... (1646); [Thomason Tracts; 167.E.118(6) ]; [ESTCR208137 ]

______, A Single Eye All Light, no Darkness; or Light and Darkness One ... (1646); [British Library: E.614 (1); ] [ESTCR206526 ] [Thomason Tracts; 94:E.614(1) ] [Wing (2nd ed., 1994), C4584 ]

______, A General charge, or impeachment of high treason, ... (1647); [ESTCR204451 ] [Thomason Tracts; 65:E:410(9) ] [Wing (2nd ed. 1994),C4578A ]

______, Look About you for the Devil that you fear is in you: or, ... (1659); [ESTCR32621 ] [Ebb, 1641-1700; 1523:18 ] [Wing(CD-ROM, 1996)C4579 ]

______, The Quakers downfal, ... (1659); [ESTCR29963 ] [Ebb, 1641-1700; 1457:18 ] [Wing(CD-ROM, 1996),C4582 ]

______, (1659); [ ] [ ] [ ]

______, The Lost Sheep Found; or, The Prodigal returns to the Fathers house, after many a sad and weary Journey through many Religious Countreys, ... (1660; [EEb, 1641-1700: 1523:19] [Wing C4580]

______, The Right Devil Discovered; ... (1659); [ESTCR32623 ] [Ebb, 1641-1700; 1523:20) ] [Wing (CD-ROM) 1996), C4583 ] [EEBO ]

______, (1660); [ ] [ ] [ ]

Coppe, Abiezer,[1619-1672], Some Sweet Sips of Some Spirituall Wine, sweetly and freely dropping from one cluster of Grapes, brought between two upon a Staffe from Spiritual Canaan (the Land of the Living; the Living Lord) to late Egyptian, ... (1649); [EEb,1641-1700;683:12 ] [Wing (2nd ed.),C6093 ] [British Library: E.578 (13,14) ]

______, >cite>Divine teachings; ... (1649); [ESTCR204343 ] [Thomason Tracts; 88.E.5764(5,6,7) ] [Ebb, 1641-1700; 2167:04) ]

______, A Fiery Flying Roll; a Word from the Lord to all the Great Ones of the Earth, whom this may concerne: Being the last Warning Piece at the dreadfull day of Judgement ... (1649); [ Thomason Tracts: 90:E.587(13)] [Wing C6087] [ESTCR206283 ]

______, A Second Fiery Flying Roule: to All the Inhabitants of the earth, specially to the rich ones. ... (1649); [Thomason Tracts: 90:E.587(14)] [Wing C6092] [ESTCR206288 ]

______, A Remonstrance of The sincere and Zealous Prostestations of Abiezer Coppe, Against the Blasphemous and execrable opinions recited in the Act of Aug. 10. 1650 ... (1651); [British Library: E.621 (5)] [Thomason Tracts; 95:E. 621(5)] [Wing (2nd ed., 1994) C6089] [ESTCR206397 ]

______, Copp's Return to the wayes of Truth; ... (1651); [ESTCR206589 ] [Thomason Tracts; 98:E.637(4) ] [Wing (2nd ed. 1994), C6090 ]

______, To the Supream Power, the Parliament of the Common-wealth of England And to the Right Honorable the Council of State, Appointed by their Authority (1651)

______, Truth asserted against, and Triumphing over Error (1651); [ESTCR33398 ] [Ebb, 1641-1700; 1547::2124.1:41 ]

______, The Character of a true Christian (1680); [ESTCR33398 ] [Ebb, 1641-1700; 1547:41:2124.1:35) ] [EEBO ]

Coppin, Richard, [fl. 1646-1659], Truth's Testimony, and a Testimony of Truths Appearing, in Power, Life, Light and Glory, ... (1655); [EEb, 161-1700; 1864:2] [Wing C6094] [ESTCR215454]

______, [Another ed.] (1768); [18th Century; reel 1156, no. 08][ESTCT135251]

______, A Blow at the Serpent; or a gentle answer from Maidstone Prison to Appease Wrath, Advancing itself against Truth and Peace atRochester ... (1656); [EEb,1641-1700; 1864:2 ] [ESTCR215454]

______, [Another ed.] [1763?] [18th Century; reel 3084, no. 08] [ESTCT135198]

______, The Adventure of all things in Christ, and of Christ in all things ... [1763 ] [18th Century; reel 3084, no. 09] [ESTCT135207 ]

Downame, John, [d.1652 ], A Blow at the Root, Or, some OBSERVATIONS towards A Discovery of the Subtitles and Devices of Satan, practiced against the Church and Truth of CHRIST, as In all Ages, so in these times especially (1650); [British Library, E.594 (14) ]

Dornford. Robert, [ ], Gospel-Light, and Gospel-Life, in the Saints Conversaation. ... A Discovery of some Ranters Lately Brought to Trial in London, with their Examnations. A Word to all men in Power (1652);[Thomson Tracts: 175:E.13315(2)] [Wing 92nd ed., 1994) D1934 ] [ESTCR209204 ]

Farnworth, Richard, [d. 1666], The Ranters Principles & Deceits Discovered and Declared Against, Denied and Disowned by us whom the world calls Quakers (1655); [Thomason Tracts: 126.E.830(14)] [Wing(2nd ed.) F501] [ESTCR207442 ]

Hall, George, [1612?-1668], The Declaration of John Robins, the False Prophet, Otherwise called the Skakers God, and Joshua Beck, and John King, the two false Disciples, with the rest of their Fellow-Creatures now Prisoners in the New-Prison at Clarkenwell ... (1651);[Thomason Tracts: 111.E.72(7)\ [British Library: E.629 (13)]

______ and Digby, Kenelm, Sir, [1603-1665]. The Black and Terrible vvarming piece;, or, a Scourge to Englands Rebellion ... the Dangerous Proceedings of the Ranters ... (1653); [Thomason Tracts; 111:E.721(7) ] [Wing (2nd ed., 1994) B3039 ] [ESTCR207217 ]

Harwood, John, [ ] The Lying Prophet Discovered and Removed; ... (1659); [ESTCR40951 ] [EBB, 1641-1700; 1680.11 ] [Wing (2nd ed., H1103A ]

Hickcock, Richard, [ ], A Testimony Against the People call'd Ranters and their Pleads and their Pleads and a call or Invitation of them to Return to the Lord again (1659); [EEb 1641-1700: 1485:9 ] [Wing(2nd ed.), H1918 ] [ESTCR31100 ]

Holland, John (porter), [fl. 1650 ], Smoke of the Bottomlesse Pit. Or, A More true and fuller Discovery of the Doctrine of those men which call themselves Ranters: or, The Mad Crew (1651); [British Library: E.622 (5)] [Thomason Tracts; 95:E.622(5)] [Wing (2nd ed.) H2428] [ESTCR206430]

Hyde, Edward,[1607-1659], A Wonder and yet no Wonder: a great Red Dragon in Heaven (1651) [Thomason Tracts 179:E.1361(2) ] [Wing H3869] [ESTCR209183]

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Reading, John, [1588-1667], The Ranters Ranting: with the Apprehending, Examinations, and Confession of Iohn Collins, I. Shakespear, Tho. Wiberton, and five more which are to Answer the next Sessions ... (1650); [Thomason Tracts: 95:E.618(8)] [Wing R450 ] [ESTCR203304 ]

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______, A Letter presented unto Alderman Fouke, Lord Mayor of London, from the two witnesses and prisoner [1653]; [EEb, 1641-1700; 290:7. 1534:16] ESTRCR22813; EEBO

______, The Prophet Reeve's Epistle to his friend, Discovering the Dark Light of the Quakers, Written in the year 1654. September the 20th [1660?; ] [EEb, 1640-1700; 1938:21] [ESTCR217554]

Roulston, Gilbert, [ ], Ranters Bible, or, Seven Several Religions by them Held and Maintained, with the full Particulars of their Strange Sects and Societies ... (1650); [British Library: E.619 (6)] [Thomason Tracts: 95:E.619(6)] [Wing (2nd ed.) R2006][ESTCR206365]

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______. [Another ed.] (1648); [EEb, 1641-1700; 1046:15] {Wing S414] [ESTCR34048]

______, [Another ed.] (1649); [EEb, 1641-1700; 1535:23] [Wing (2nd ed.) S414A] [ESTCR32330]

______, Divinity Anatomized. Or, Truth Nakely Appearing out of its Fleshly Cloathing, and Creature Attire (1649); [ESTCR231557]

______, A Rout, A Rout, or, Some part of the Armies Quarters Beaten Up, By the DAY of the Lord Stealing upon them (1649); ESTCR32329; [Wing(2nd ed.), S416A; EEBO]

______, Heights in Depths and Depths in Heights or Truth no less Secretly then Sweetly sparkling out its GLORY from under a Cloud of OBLOQUIE (1651); [Thomason Tracts:179:E1361[4]; Wing (2nd ed.), S415; ESTCR209192

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