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Quakers

A Brief Overview

The early English Quakers movement emerged out of the general aftermath of the Regicide of King Charles I, between the English Civil Wars and the Restoration(1660). The movement started in the northern wilds of England, and gradually spread south gaining many new converts in the processes. The Quakers were one of a number of quasi-social and religious sect prominent between 1640-1660. As with a number of other sects of this period there were a broad and often diverse set of philosophical, religious, and social views within its own general membership. Not everyone necessarily read from the same page, so to speak. There were moderate, and some more radical elements within their early ranks. Some were known for their own radical social theology of the period. There was a strong Millennialism message of the Second Coming of Christ, or the End Days of the Book of Revelations that impacted many in England at the time, including many Quakers.

The Quakers were active in their writings of the period to support their positions, and to defend them. The movement had a number of prominent voices including George Fox who advocated the "In Dwelling Sprit"e. There was a small but prominent military wing that believed the force of arms was a rational methodology to secure its stated goals for the Second Coming, including the attempted assassination of General Oliver Cromwell, "The Lord Protector". The early Quakers had a major social impact on English society during the Interregnum, and the Commonwealth periods from their large numbers, and some of their stated positions. The Quakers were often portrayed in the media of the day for their social radical views, the reported violence of some Quakers. Not unlike other sects of this period, the use of the term "Quaker" might have different meanings to different individuals of the period.

After the Venner's Uprising of 1660, many of those more radical elements of the sect associated with the violence were arrested, many were tried and sent to prison, and some died. Many escaped during the battle, or would gradually disappeared into the background away from London, or sought the imagined safety on the continent from the Crown. The Crown, now under King Charles II, had a long list of individuals that they wanted to speak with since 1660 regarding the earlier Regicide of King Charles I, his father, and the recent violence in London against the Crown. The more moderate elements within the Quaker leadership had tried to stop Venner's Uprising, but there were independent outside elements willing to support the cause financially for their own ends.

The more moderate elements within the new leadership made a good faith effort to redirect the energies of the movement towards helping to assist with the various current social problems of English society, and towards embracing many of their earlier shared English Seeker roots. There was also a certain amount of political pressure coming from the Crown on the Quaker leadership to get their house in order, and moderate their recent public image away from violence. The Crown for its part kept a watchful eye on certain elements within the group for caution.

A major influence in the new leadership after the Restoration was the rise of one William Penn, The Younger" in its membership. Penn was well educated, and came from a prominent and a wealthy English family. His father the former Admiral Penn, The Elder" was an English War hero, and a sometime member of the Royalist government. Penn himself seems to have often accompanied his father, as an aide or assistance, during his father's naval, and government duties. Penn made many important future contracts while assisting his father in this manner.

While studying in France Penn , The Younger" became interested in the study of religion, and the topic of religious toleration, and he visited Holland. His religious interests led him to be disowned by his father. Penn was taken in by the Quaker community at the time for support. Penn rose to be a prominent member of the community, and a attorney in the Inns of Court [legal academy]. While attending an illegal Quaker Meeting, Penn was initially arrested, but was let go as a "gentleman". He refused an demanded to be arrested with his fellow Quakers. A prominent Court case ensued with Penn for the Defense. The jury found for the Defense, but the verdict was overturned by the Court. The Court then threw the jury into jail demanding they reversed their verdict against the Defense, which they would not do. After a period of time a higher English Court intervened, the Court released the jury members, and re-instated the original not guilty verdict, and released the Quakers, and Penn.

The original trial verdict for the Defense, the overturning of that not guilty verdict by the Court, and the subsequent imprisonment to its jury members became something of a major Cause Celeb in London community, and had a negative impact the Crown for upholding traditional English justice under the Law. The Crown was forced to intercede and release the Quakers, and the now prominent lawyer of England, William Penn "The Younger". Penn saw a potential political opening, and decided to try and exploit it. Rather then to try and agrue "religious toleration" in the English Courts system, he took his case directly to the Crown.

There had been a earlier Quaker migration of Quakers to New York, the American Colonies. Penn decided to pitch his own plan for an English Colony for Quakers directly to King Charles II, and the current Duke of York (i.e., King James II). As a younger man Penn, acting as an aide/secretary for his father Admiral William Penn, in various naval or government functions,Penn "The Younger" would develop personal relationships with both men about his same age. Penn got an audience the the Crown, and laid out a proposal to address the Quakers issue. The final agreement came down to a new English Crown Colony owned by, and operated by William Penn "the Younger" to be named Pennsylvania in honour of his father, Admiral Penn, English War hero. A great tract of land the size of most of the modern state of Pennsylvania, with Penn as its first limited term governor, and with a constitution written by Penn, the English lawyer, based on religious toleration, and Liberty for all. The deal may have been seen as a potential win-win compromise to the Crown for an old friend. For some wilderness land, a new English colony was establish on American soil as a potential home more future English Quakers, or other Englishmen. William Penn, the new prominent lawyer of religious toleration would have his own community to practice his good works away from London. There was also that question of some 16,000 pounds sterling, that outstanding debt owned to Admiral William, The Elder" Penn, the English War hero. Probably not a mad deal after all?

The modern Society of Friends grew and developed over the years influenced by some of its many early leaders such as George Fox, and The In Dwelling Spirit. William Penn "The Younger" and his early efforts to promote religious toleration and Liberty for all as the foundation for Human Rights, and against the scourge of War on Society.

EARLY ENGLISH QUAKERS

Quakerism had it early beginnings in the North of England. The early development of the sect is generally credited to the outgrowth of the personal insights of expressed by the teachings of, and writings of one or its early preachers, and leaders George Fox (1624-1691). Fox was not the only voice of the early movement. There are some other early influences on the sect, including the English Seekers, some early Baptist influence, and other early Quaker writings.

George Fox 1624-1691

George Fox was born in the area of Drayton-in-the-Clay, in the wilds of northern Leicestershire in 1643. He seems to have had a good family, and upbringing. Between 1643-47, Fox in his own works reports going through some of his own religious conversion. Fox described what he called "inner light" within himself. That everyone had a spark of the Divine within themselves, which only needed to be nurtured by prayer, and meditations to bring one closer to a fuller appreciation of the Divine message. There were some Early criticisms that Fox's message may have had other earlier antecedents, and was not that unique.

From these early experiences George Fox developed a set of general religious values, and tenets for himself based on the idea that all men possessed the "spirit of the Divine within themselves. Having the spark of the divine within themselves, that all men would be equal, and freed from many restraints imposed by Man and Society. There were often questions of interpretations of these tenets within the leadership over time. There was no single official written creed within the early movement, which would have violated one of its own fundamental precepts of an organized church.

The Indwelling Spirit of the Divine would led Man to know and to better understand the true message to live a Godly life, and to aspire to do good in the World to their fellow man as an example for others, and to offer charity to the poor, and needy. By being inspired with God's message within man, he would gradually be led to experience a fuller understanding of God plan for him in this Life.

We may list some of the principles areas that many Early Quakers might have been familiar with, or observed for themselves. 1. No formal, or organized religious instutions, i.e. The Church of England, its administration, liturgical or sacramental rituals, creeds, prayer books, congregations, paid clergy, or tithes. All organized religions were questioned. 2. The Holy Bible was a good book, but its true interpretation was only possible through the InDwelling Spirit, according to some. 3.Many of the theological issues raised during the Reformation were discussed, often without a formal general policy, i.e., the nature of the Trinity in 1650.

Fox began to gathered small local groups of religious converts from the Leicestershire area ca. 1644. These groups formed the early core basis for his meetings of "Friends". Additional groups would be formed in Warwickshire ca. 1645, in Nottinghamshire ca. 1646, and in Derbyshire ca.1647.

Fox was imprisoned while spreading his teachings in Nottingham during 1649. He was arrested under the Blasphemy Law of 1650, Fox was sent to prison in Derby to serve out his sentence time. While in prison Fox openly spoke out against the the vain and worldly practices that he saw in society. He also spoke about the coming of the Last Days of the Book of Revelations, and the coming Day of Judgment of the Second Coming.

From 1649-63, Fox had problems with the "Proud Quakers", a schismatic group of Nottingham Friends led by Rice (or Rhys) Jones ( Johns) (fl.1650-1663). He was a Baptist soldier prior to 1650 and was later a local alehouse-keeper. They rejects many of Fox's tenets, and his authority over them including not separating themselves from more fully from the local Society. They rejected helping the poorer Quakers, and were probably a little too worldly in their views, and attitudes. Jones would have Ranter, Muggletonian, and Jacob Boehme leanings.

Sometime in 1652, Fox had the good fortune to make the acquaintance of Mrs. Margaret nee Askew Fell (1614-1702), and her husband, Judge Fell of Swarthmoor Hall. They were Independents, but became good friends with Fox. Mrs. Fell converted to Quakerism which allowed Fox to hold meetings at the Fell manor. Judge Fell's patronage gave credibility and protection to Fox and to the local movement. Meetings were held at Swarthmoor Hall, and became the early national headquarters of sorts.

By 1652 a major evangelical effort had begun to spread across England. Groups of Quaker ministers and preachers were canvassing towns and villages of northern England broadcasting the new Quaker message. Women membership was encouraged and contributed to the spread of the movement.

The term "Quakers" has often been attributed to the Justice Gervase Bennett to "tremble at the name of the Lord". George Fox (1624-1691) was using the term Quakers in his own writings by 1654. By 1655, the term was coming into general usage.

Early Quakers were often called the "People of God", the "Children of the Light", or just "Friends". George Fox often referred to his own early groups "The Friends of the Truth".

Prominent among these early messengers were: Richard Farnworth (Farnsworth) (c.1630-1666), William Dewsbury (1621-1688), James Nayler (1617?-1660), and Margaret Killam. Some of the prominent early Quaker writers may include Edward Burrough (1632-1663), George Fox "The Younger" (d.1661), Richard Hubberthorne (1628-1662), and John Harwood

James Nayler (1617?-1660) was born in Ardsley, Yorkshire. He was active in the Parliamentary army as a preacher. During 1651, he came into contact with George Fox, and travelled with him for a period of time. Nayler was often cited by many as the most important member within the new Quaker leadership by 1656. Before the Restoration (1660), George Fox (1624-1691) may have been considered at best the "First among Equals" in the general Quaker leadership. There were a number of influential voices in that early Quaker movement before 1660.

By 1654, Quakerism was expanding southward across England to London, the West Country, and into non-Puritan strongholds. Nayler became a major preacher in the greater London area. Converts were found in all classes of society especially "of the middling sort" and in the rural areas. There was a large active female membership. Some estimates suggest up to sixty thousand Quaker converts by 1660.

Quakerism before the Restoration(1660) was a political, social and religious movement with some different social and religious views from the modern Society of Friends. In some ways they employed some of the same aspects of the contemporary sects of the Levellers and the Surrey Diggers, rejected the privileged structure of English society. They envisioned a new Society based on their own religious views of all godly men possessing the same internal Light or Spirit of Christ.

All men were equal in the inner light of the Spirit. This being true, than Man only needed to embrace the Spirit to be one with the Spirit before all Men. Unfortunately for the Quakers, this religious view did not find favor among the wealthy status quo, or other religious sects.

Quakers denounced much of what they considered ungodly or corrupting influences within Society. For the Quaker the true believer is moved by the "Inner Spirit" to witness before all men with the "indwelling life of Christ". The Spirit was for this reason more important than the Scriptures. The Spirit would revealed the true meaning of the Scriptures. The Bible was not necessarily the only Word of God for some Quaker.

Quakers believed in a Universal Salvation or "free will" for all men rather than the predestination of Calvinism. All men could thus be saved from sin by the "Indwelling Light". This permitted the attainment of a form of "religious perfection" which often led to bizarre behavior or visions by some early Quakers as a sign of this divine approbation.

Some charges of Familism, Antinomianism, a lack of Moral Law, were raised by early critics against the early Quakers. As with the Ranters and the Adamites, a form of holy nudism was practiced by some of these early Quakers as a rejection of the worldly values of Society. These individuals helped to contributed to the general feeling of unrest among the general public of the period.

Reports of curing the sick and working miracles were attributed to some early Quakers as the attainment of a higher spiritual level. Long fasts were undertaken as protests by some Quaker leaders including: George Fox, Richard Hubberthorne (1628-1662), and James Parnell (1637?-1656) who died of thirst.

Quakerism had a strong anticlerical bent rejecting all ordinations or administrative structure. No sacramental or ceremonial traditions of worship to detract the individual from the Inward Light of God.

Like the Seekers before them, Quaker meetings were a time to wait in silence, and to contemplate God. Having no official clergy, lay preachers often women would officiate at meetings.

Quakers rejected a number of traditional doctrines. Among these were the orthodox doctrines of the Holy Trinity. God was indwelling, not in the Stars; "The Kingdom of God was in Man". Heaven, Hell and the Resurrection were stages of internal development through the Spirit.

Christ as the "Lamb of God" and "the propitiation of Our sins" was not validated in their theological view. Christ's flesh and blood are within the saints. Christ would not come at the Last Judgment.

In addition to their religious beliefs, Quakers rejected most of the civil legal authorities and their laws. Public oaths, the payment of tithes to the state Church or its ministers were considered illegal.

Quakers were know to speak very harshly according by the standards of the day to other non-Quakers for its shock value. Quakers had a propensity for disrupting the religious services of other groups. The very social fabric of society was being called into question. This brought the Quaker and their radical theology of change into direct conflict with the State and the Church authorities.

Quakers adopted their own distinctive form and style of dress to identify them as distinct and separate from the worldly values of Man. Many of these traditions were developed by George Fox during his early years. Certain customs of address and speech in the familiar "Thee" and "Thou" were developed as outward signs of separation. Even the hat protocols of not doffing ones hat, or removing it as a sign of respect or deference to persons of authority, or social status were well established.

In October 1656,James Nayler (1618?-1660), a prominent Quaker leader was of the period, was arrested for riding into Bristol on an horse attended by a group of women. The women had claimed Nayler to be the new Messiah. Nayler and the women were promptly arrested by the local authorities and sent off to London for trial.

The early Nayler was often characterized by some as belonging to a more radical or "Ranter" wing of the sect. Some critics of the day often claimed that the Quakers and the Ranters were two faces of the same coin. The Quakers being the more polished of the two.

Parliament attempted to use the Bristol Incident as a pretext to quash the rising tide of Quakerism and to raise public fears of the sect. Nayler was tried and sent to prison, only just escaping the death penalty. He was released in 1659. Nayler was reconciled with his old friend George Fox before his own death in 1660.

This single incident help to raise the general level of anxiety through out the Commonwealth against the Quakers. The Instrument of Government (1653) which allowed religious toleration was now being called into question by many civic and religious leaders. The old Elizabethan Vagrancy Act, and the Lord's Day Act (1657) were enacted to assist local authorities in helping to keep the Quakers and other radicals sects in check.

As with the puritan separatists before them, the Quakers would find a new home in the American Colonies. In 1657, the voyage of the Woodhouse (Ship) was undertaken for the settlement of Quakers in modern day New York (State).

Quakers came into conflict with other sects of the period. Quakers vied with the Baptists, and the Presbyterians for influence. The Muggletonians had a long term paper war with George Fox and the Quakers. Quakers were not strangers to active military service during this period. Both the New Model Army and the Royal Navy found Quakers within their ranks.

During the Interregnum (1649-60), some elements of the Quakers were associated with some radical fringe groups including the Fifth Monarchy Men. After 1650, the Quakers and the Fifth Monarchy Men were last armed sects as potential military opponents to the current government.

The period between 1656-59 was a period marred with escalating social unrest of which a considerable part was attributed to the "pending" Quaker uprisings. In 1660, one Mary Dyer (d.1660) was executed as a Quaker. This perception of public fear for the Quakers may have helped to facilitating a early dialogues between various conservative groups and the Monarchy which led to the success of the Restoration (1660).

Venner's Uprising (1661) saw the last public vestiges of political unrest against the Monarchy. Thomas Venner, a leader of a military faction of the Fifth Monarchy Men, who had made various attempts against Oliver Cromwell in 1658. In the first few days of Jan. 1660, a group of armed militant Fifth Monarchy Men, Baptists, and some reported 4000 Quakers attempted to take, and overthrow the new infant government in London.

It was a final attempt to undermine, and strike the government dead it its crib before the establishment of the new central government in 1661. After a few days of some heavy local fighting the rebel forces were holding their own. But once the full weight of the Army was brought to bear it was all over except for the shouting. Many of the rebels simply disappeared from the field of battle once the tide of battle began to turn. Many rebels were captured, and arrested, tried, and sent to prison. The ring leaders were also captured, tried and sentenced to cruel deaths. Many of their non-combatant supporters were also sought out, arrested, fined or sent sent to gaol, or prison, many would server long sentences as an example by the Crown.

The Quakers provided a interim home at one time, or another for many of the Interregnum sects, including: Behmenists, Ranters, Seekers and others. Like the Seekers, Quakers offereda quite venue away from many of the more radical sects that disappeared after the Restoration (1660).

With the Restoration (1660), and a new monarch, the earlier militant elements within the Quaker membership needed to change. A new emphasis was now being redirected to their Seeker roots, helping the less fortunate individual in society, and those in want or need. The "Indwelling Spirit" and the rejection of the more worldly aspects of society, and man.

George Fox would soon find himself in Court on charges against the Crown, for which he was convicted, and sent to prison. In 1669, George Fox married Mrs. Margaret Fell (1614-1702), the widow of Judge Fell.

By 1670 many of the early Quaker leadership were now dead. Those remaining leaders such as Thomas Salthouse (1630-1691),George Whitehead(1636-1723), and George Fox "The Elder" were attempting to establish a new moderate framework for Quakerism and with it a new face to the general public, and especially to the Crown.

>William Penn,"The Younger"(1644-1718)

William Penn "The Younger"(1644-1718) came from a prominent, and wealthy merchant English family. His father Admiral Sir William Penn,"The Elder" (1621-1670), was an Admiral in the British Navy, an English War hero, and a member of the House of Commons from 1660-1670. The Admiral was also involved in some land acquisitions in Ireland, and the Caribbean.

As a younger man Penn"The Younger" often accompanied his father as an attache/aide on official naval duties, where he became acquainted with many prominent of government, including some at Court. Penn was sent off to the the best English schools for his education, but was too lackadaisical for his father view point. He was promptly sent to a prominent English school in France, who were reportly of sterner attitudes. Not impressed with his curriculum, he developed a new interest in religious studies. He became quite interested in one particular professor who also taught on the topic of "religious toleration" a new area of academic interest. Having taken the necessary classed that he wished, he left the institution without a degree. He did some touring visiting other European communities including Holland, and observing their systems of religious toleration to different religious groups, and sects.

On returning back to England, Penn "The Younger" became associated with the Quakers for their religious toleration views. On learning of his sons new religious affiliation, there was a falling out between them. Unwilling to disassociate himself, Admiral Penn disowned his son from the family, its property, and wealth. The son now found himself basically a pauper without any financial assistance to speak of. His new Quaker friends took him in, and gave him the necessary support until he was getting back on his feet. While doing the former, Penn devoted a great deal of his energy, talents, and thought towards the moderate Quaker movement. He became a major booster for the cause, and became more prominent in the new leadership over time.

Penn came from an important merchant family, and seems to have used his family experiences to good use, and gradually became a prosperous merchant in his own right. As an extension of his academic training in religious toleration, Penn entered would have a major impact on the future of Quakerism. Penn became a convert to religious toleration views while in university, which he left, and visited Holland. He would become a prominent Quaker leader, and voice in the new Quaker movement. Penn came from a prominent, and wealthy family, but had been disowned by his father for his religious views. Penn found support in the early Quaker community while he made a new living for himself, while devoting much of his energies. His father Admiral William Penn, "The Elder", was a war hero, and sometime member of the old government. William Penn had made some personal contacts in the new Restoration Court based on these  former family ties.

William Penn, now a prominent barrister approached both King Charles II, and the Duke of York (King James II) to request a patent of land for settlement in the American Colonies for the Quakers. Possibly on personal relations, or a general desire to separate many Quakers from England by the Atlantic Ocean, or to populate America with more English subjects-colonists a personal accord was brokered by William Penn "The Younger" with the Crown. Basically William Penn was granted a deed to tracts of land most of which is now mainly the State of Pennsylvania by the English Crown as an English American Colony. Penn had personal ownership by the Crown, and was its first Governor, of limited constitutional powers. Penn wrote a constitution for his new English Colony based on religious toleration, and Liberty after having visited Holland previously.

There was also a little question of some 16,000 pounds Sterling, a great deal of money, regarding an outstanding debt owned to Admiral Penn by the Crown, as part of the bargain. In many ways, William Penn "The Younger" was able to create the promised "Holy Experiment" of English society in America, but not available to the average Englishman living in London. The English Quakers, and their friends found a new home in which to grow and to prosper away from religious and political strife. The Welcome (Ship) arrived in America on 8 November in 1682 with a new cargo of early American colonists. Some recent research tends to suggest that the earned reputation of Pennsylvania, and the actual reality were often different to 1880.

A SELECT QUAKER BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources

[Anon.] A total rout, or a brief discovery, of a pack of knaves and drabs, intituled pimps, panders, hectors, trapans, nappers mobs, and spanners: the description of their qualities are set down in brief ... , (1653); [Thomason Tracts: 246:669.f17(56)][Wing (2nd ed.) T1951] [ESTCR211706]

[Anon.] A Declaration from the harmles & innocent people of God called Quakers against all plotters and fighters in the world ... , [1660] [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 594:17]

[Anon.] The Prisoners' Defense Supported, or an answer to the charges and allegations of George Markham, vicar of Carlton, in Yorkshire, contained in his book entitled, "More truth for the seekers" (1798)

[Anon.] A True Narrative of the Examination, Tryall of James Naylor ... (1657)

Adams, T. [ ], and Farnsworth, Richard [ ], An Easter-Reckoning (1656)

Beckham, Edward, [1637?-1714]. A Brief Discovery of Some of the Blasphemos and Seditious Principles of the People, called Quakers (1699)

______. The Principles of the Quakers further shewn to be blasphemous and seditious in a reply to Geo. Whitehead's answer to the Brief discovery, stiled Truth and innocency vindicated , (1700); [EEb, 1641-1700; 1560:69] [Wing B1653]

Benson, Gervase, [d.1679]. An Ansvver to John Gilpin's book, published in his name, and subscribed by the priest of Kendal, ... , (1655); [EEb, 1641-1700: 1582:41] [Wing B1899]

______, The Cry of the oppressed from their oppressions, ... , (1656); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 167:10] [Wing B1900]

Berwicke, John, [fl. 1660]. A Answer to a Quaker Seventeen Heads of Queries (1660)

[Besse, Joseph, [1683?-1757], An Abstract of the Sufferings of the People Call'd Quakers, ( 1733-8){3 vols.]

______. A Collection of the Suffereings of the People Called Quaker, (1753)[2 vols.]

______. Index to Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 of A collection of the suffereings of the people called Quakers (Sullivan, A. G., ed.) (1991)

[Blome, Richard, [d.1705. ], Gagg for the Quakers (1659)

______. The Fanatick History; or, An Exact Relation and Account of the old Anabaptists, and the New Quakers (1660); [EEb, 1641-1700; 55-7] [Wing B3212]

Britten, William, d. 1669. Silent meeting, a wonder to the world, yet practiced by the apostles and owned by the people of God, scornfully called Quakers (1671); [EEB, 1641-1700 ; 732:9] [Wing B4826]

[Collection of Quaker tracts] ( 1660?-92)[ 18 vols.] 

Crane, Richard, [fl. 1659-1665]. God's holy name magnified, and his truth exalted by the testimony of his faithful servants who have suffered the cruel penalty of banishment from the native country by the rulers therof ... , (1665); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1253:12] [Wing C6812]

Crook, John, [1617-1699]. A Defence of the true church called Quakers (come and coming out of wildernesse, Babylon, and the dark night of the apostacy of Antichrist into their own land, which is Sion the mountain of holinesse, there to worship the Lord in spirit and truth) against the several sects and sorts of people ... , (1659)

Croese, G. [ ], Historia Quakeriana, (English trans.) (1696)

Dornford, Robert, [fl. 1652]. Gospel-light, and gospel-life, in the saints conversation ... , (1652); [Thomason Tracts: 175:E.1315(2)][Wing (2nd ed.) D1934] [ESTCR209204]

Emmot, George [ ], A Northern Blast, or the Spiritual Quaker (1655)

Farmer, Ralph [ ], Sathan in thron'd in his chair of pestilence. Or, Quakerism in its exaltation. ... [1656?]; [EEb, Tract suppl.; E1:2(Harl.592(294)] [Thomason tracts; 135:e.897(2)][WingF444][ESTCR206058]

Farnworth, Richard, [c.1630-1666]

______, A Discovery of Truth and Falsehood (1653)

______, The Heart Opened by Christ (1654)

______, Antichrists Man of War (1655)

______, The Pure Language of the Spirit of Truth (1655)

______, The Ranters' Principles (1655)

______, A Loving salutation with several seasonable exhortations ... , (1665); [EEB, 1641-1700 ; 738:23] [Wing F491]

______, A Looking-Glass for George Fox (1668)

______, Fox, George, [1624-1691] and Naylor, James 1617?-1666].

______,To you that are called by the name of Baptists, or the baptised people that that do what you do by imitation from John Baptist ... , [1654?];[Whitley 49-654]

Fell, Margaret Askew (nee Fox), [1614-1702]

______, False prophets, antichrists, deceivers which are in the world ... , (1660); [EEb, 1641-1700; 1592:28] [Wing F631]

______. An Evident demonstration of Gods elect which clearly manifesteth to them ... (1660); [EEb, 1642-1700; 1592:27][Wing F630]

______. A Declaration and an information from us the people of God called Quakers ... (1660); [Wing F628]

______. [Another ed.]; [EEb, 1641-1700; 981:18]

______. The Examination and tryall of Margaret Fell and George Fox ... (1664); [EEb, 1641-1700; 66:17] [Wing E3710]

______. A Call to the Universall seed of God throughout the whole world to come up to the place of publick worship which Christ Jesus the great prophet hath set up ... (1665); [EEb, 141-1700; 1441:64)

______. A Brief collection of remarkable passages and occurences relating to birth, education, life, conversion, travels, services, and deep sufferings of the eminent, faithful servant of the Lord, Margaret Fell ... (1710)

Fox, George, [1624-1691]

______, Saul's errand to Damascus, with his packet of letters from the high proests against the disciples of the Lord, or, A faithful transcript of a petition in Lancashier who call themselves ministers of the Gospel, breathing out threatnings and slaughters against a peaceful and & goldly people there, by them nick-names Quakers ... (1654); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1092:15] [Wing F1895]

______. A Warning from the Lord to all such as hang down the head for a day and pretend to keep a fast unto God when they smite with the fist of wickness and suffers the innocent to lie oppressed, ... (1654); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1504:15] [Wing F1980A]

______. A Declaration against all Popery, and Popish points : and is renounced from them and by them who the scornes in scorn call Quakers ... , [1655]; [EEb, Tract suppl.; B1:4(4152.f.21(7)] {ESTCR224581]

______. A Declaration of the ground of error & errors, blasphemy, blasphemers, and blasphemies, ... (1657); [Wing B1900]

______. A Paper sent forth into the world from them that are scornfully called Quakers (1657); [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1592:58] [Wing F1875]

______. Something Concerning silent Meetings [1657]; [EEb, 1641-1700 ; 1331:20] [Wing F1909A][ESTCR26721]

______, The Pearle found in England ... (1658); [EEb] 1641-1700 ; 1384:17] [Wing F1878]

______. Of Bowings, shewing such as are not to bow, nor worship ... (1657) [Wing F1869]

______. A Declaration from the Harmles & Innocent People of God Called Quakers [1661]

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