logo2.jpg (1652 bytes)



A political action movement which grew out of the breakdown of government and the conflicts of the English Civil War between 1640-1650. The name Levellers was probably coined by King Charles I as a derogatory term for their radical social democratic philosophy. Marchemont Nedham, the King's chronicler, remarked of the King when referring to the Levellers as "... that endeavor to cast down and level the enclosures of nobility, gentry, and property, to make us all even, ..." .

An general underlying religious message of the movement was that all men are equal in the sight of God be they Prince or pauper. That true and perfect freedom was not attainable in this world. True government was only answerable to the People, not to the Parliament or the Crown. Religious toleration and a basic Christian concern for those at the lowest level of society were central elements.

The Levellers were organized at a chapter level. Membership was based on a nominal membership fee. Chapter meetings were often held at a local tavern. Members were often taken from the "middling sort" of the population such as trades people, artisans and shop keepers. The chapters themselves were run on a democratic basis, a new concept at the time. Leveller chapters started in London and expanded from there. The Whalebone Tavern (London) functioned as the nominal headquarters for the Levellers and John Lilburne as the nominal president.

The first tier of the Leveller movement included the following:

John Lilburne (1615-1657)

The Leveller Movement had its initial beginnings with a small group of pamphleteers. John Lilburne (ca. 1614-1657), or "Free Born John" was the titular leader and spiritual heart of the Levellers.

Lilburne came from an old and prominent family from Thickley Puncherdon, Durham. Lilburne's older brother Robert Lilburne (1613-1665) was a prominent member of the New Moble Army, as a Major General, and a signature of the Regicide, as Commander-in-Chief in Scotland from 1652-54,and a member of the Protectorate government.

John Lilburne was arrested during 1638 by Church officials for distributing banned literature. He was arrested and questioned by the Star Chamber, and was found guilty. He was whipped, pilloried, fined and throw into prison. He smuggled out his work:A Worke of the Beast, or a Elation of a Most Unchristian Censure, Executed Upon J. Lilburne. (1638)

Lilburne actively criticized the "popish" Church of England, and the administration of Archbishop Laud and his methods in writings. He was released from prison in 1640 by order of the Long Parliament. He joined the New Model Army and rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel,who was friendly with Cromwell and resigned his commission during 1645. He was a high profile member of the Leveller movement, and its titular leader.

Richard Overton (fl.1631-1664)

Robert Overton (fl. 1631-1664) beginnings are uncertain, his father may have been a Midland clergyman. During 1615-16, he fled to a Baptist congregation in the Netherlands. A London printer by trade and a supporter of Mortalism, he matriculated at Queens' College (Cambridge) in 1631. He became interested in acting, and did some writing.

Between 1640-42, Overton wrote some fifty tracts attacking the tainted Catholicism of the English Church, Archbishop Laud, Bishop Wren, the current.government, various government officials, the civil law and the injustice usually anonymously. During 1642-1644, he seems to have taken a rest, or a possible stint in gaol. He was back in London in early 1644 and began to publish more where he meets William Walwyn, and through him to John Lilburne.

During 1645-46, Overton wrote six critical tracts under the pseudonym of the Rev. Marpriest against the Presbyterian majority in Parliament. During 1646-47, Overton often found himself a guest of the Tower, or the Newgate Prison with other Levellers. Overton was a prolific writer, an amateur printer, a theorist to the Leveller hierarchy, and a major organizer of the movement. Overton was sometimes criticized as being too radicalfor some in his own views even within the Leveller leadership. After 1649, Overton seems to have withdrawn from public view.

William Walwyn (1600-1680)

William Walwyn (1600-80) was well educated, and came from a socially prominent family in Worcestershire, being the grandson of the former Bishop of Hereford. Walwyn would be later criticized as a traitor to his own class values. He was a rational humanist with a social conscious.

William Walwyn was an early opponent of religious intolerance, and the restrictions on individual rights and personal freedom being imposed by the State and the Crown on the general public. His work, Large Petition to Parliament in March 1647 states his basic philosophical views. He is often noted for his "practical Christianity" leanings in his later writings.

Sir John Wildman (1623-1693)

John Wildman was born in Berkshire. He may have attended Cambridge University, and the Inns of Court (London). He joined the New Model Army in 1647, and rose to the rank of Major by 1653. He became an Army Agitators during 1647 and contributed to the work The Case of the Army(1647) against King Charles I. He helped to draft The Agreement of the People promoting the Levellers first constitutional program. These Levellers preached a new doctrine of social equality and democracy. Wildman was a prolific pamphleteer often anonymously, much of his work has been criticized by some for the quality of his writings.

By 1660, Wildman had become a wealthy man, and became involved with the new government. During the late 1680's, he was accused of revolutionary leanings, and he promptly left for the Holland. By 1689, he was back in England after the Glorious Revolution (1688), as a newly elected MP from Great Bedwin (1689), Wootton Bassett (1690). He was appointed the Postmaster-General from 1689-1691. He was knighted in 1692 even with his former political leanings.

Levellers preached a radical program of social change based on democratic rights for a new growing middle class. The Civil War had engendered a desire for a new society not based on the old societal norms of privilege and power. The publication, A Remonstrance of many Thousand Citizens (1646) by Richard Overton (fl. 1631-64) established the basic message of the Leveller movement.

The Leveller's program of liberal reforms advocated: to abolish the institution of the Monarchy and the House of Lords; the separation of Church and State; suffrage for "most" Englishmen; public elections for public office; the House of Commons as the single constitutional elected law of the land; including various land, legal and tax reforms, etc. A government answerable to the People with guaranteed rights and liberties for the same. This was heavy stuff in 1646.

The Levellers were also early supporters of Cromwell and the New Model Army against the pro-Royalist and pro-Presbyterian members of the Long Parliament. Levellers came to national prominence with their support of the New Model Army's demands for their back pay in 1647.

The Levellers gained supported among the rank and file unit representatives of the New Model Army known as the "Agitators". The work The Case of the Army Truly Stated (1647) edited by Wildman outlined the Armies basic concerns, the the national obligation for the troops. The Agitators attempted to obtain some basic human rights or labour rights for the common soldier.

The New Model Army was established as a large voluntary citizens army of the People, rather than the professionally trained career soldiers. They were in effect the military power of the People. They demanded some input into the military process of the senior officers, and the Army Council.

The New Model Army was the military and political power that both Parliament and London feared. Some have characterized their efforts as the first "workers rights" demands in England. Their efforts in this regard are often somewhat overlooked or forgotten.

The Levellers voiced their own concerns of injustice towards New Model Army soldiers along with its own social agenda. Injustices to the average Mobil Army soldiers were routinely brought to the early attention of Parliament by the Levellers and their supporters. Levellers would regularly appear as advocates for those soldiers that were being charged by Parliament. Even the senior military staff known as the "Grandees" might provide its own tactical support to the Levellers during 1647-49.

The Leveller's basic manifesto Agreement of the the People (1647), and its subsequent editions of 1648 and 1649 outlined the Levellers concepts, and proposal for a new democratic constitution for a new English nation. Primary to this end was the need for suffrage for "free born" Englishmen. This was not Universal suffrage directed at all levels of society but it might change the balance of political power within a new society based on new political democratic values.

A draft constitution was drawn up by the Levellers for the consideration of the Army Council. Some open debate were held at Putney Church before the General Army Council to discuss this and other important issues of the day. These became known as the Putney Debates.

Putney Debates of 1647

The Putney Debates from 28 Oct. to 8 Nov.1647 pitted Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell(1599-1658), and Commissary-General Henry Ireton (1611-1651), an old friend of Cromwell and his latter son-in-law against each other, and everyone else on the other side including the Levellers. This was one of the major political and philosophical debates in English history. It produced no final decisions for the Leveller cause, but the debates themselves did raise many new ideas, and questions and hopes for a post-Civil War nation.

The period from 1648-1650 was a period of political and social upheaval. The Civil Wars were still raging, and financial setbacks were still common. Many people were without real jobs, business closed, and many were simply left destitue.

Added to this were the severe winter conditions of 1649/50, were some of the worst in living memory. Crops died in the fields, and major shortage of food supplies. What was available was too expensive for most citizens. Many people were starving and dying especially among the poor, the elderly and the destitute.

Many common folk in desperation began to farm their local Public Commons to grow food. Some of these groups were referred to as "Diggers". These efforts often resulted in conflicts with those that want to graze their animals of the same Public Commons for fodder.[Ed. Note: See English Dissenters: Home Page, under Diggers for more information.]

The Levellers tried to beings these social problems to the local councils, and the government. The Levellers also came into conflict with the new Presbyterian controlled Long Parliament or the "Assembly of Saints", as it is sometimes known. The Levellers appeals for religious toleration laws from the Long Parliament found little support among pro-presbyterians members of the Long Parliament in 1649.

Pro-presbyterian members of the Long Parliament were too occupied in attempting to negotiate an agreement for a national Presbyterian church administration for England, in exchange for its political support for the return of the captured King Charles I. This attempted religious coup by the Presbyterians only enraged the Independent members of the Long Parliament, and others against the King political posturings, and the Presbyterian initiatives for a new national church.

Prides's Purge (1648)

The New Model Army for it's part expressed its own outrage towards the Long Parliament membership in a more public manner with Pride's Purge (Dec. 1648). Soldiers of the New Model Army marched into London, and forcefully ousted the pro-Royalist factions, and the Presbyterian majority from Long Parliament. This action ushered in what in known as the Rump Parliament (1648-53). It was a smaller assembly assumed to be more favorable to a program of new national reforms.

The Levellers had anticipated a positive change in their political fortune with elements the New Model Army now under the new leadership of General Oliver Cromwell, whom they had supported. The new Rump Parliament was beginning to had its own perceptions of the way of the World. Lilburne soon began to have second thoughts about this new Rump Parliament and its growing pro-Puritan leaning administration.

Within the month the remaining Rump Parliament with a group of senior military officers had decided that the King Charles was a politically loose canon that needed to be resolved, one way or another for the good of the Kingdom. The new Rump Parliament promptly declared itself to be the new supreme legal authority power of the Nation. Remember that the House of Lords had not been re-instated as a legal government body. A new High Court of Justice was promptly established under law for the sole purpose to place King Charles I under arrest on charges of High Treason against the nation. He was to have a state trial which he would be found guilty of the charges, and summarily executed.

Regicide of Charles I (1649)

On 20 January 1649, a large show trail was held at the old Banqueting Hall (Whitehall,London). King Charles called the entire proceeding a complete sham. He indicated that the Rump Parliament was not authorized to act as a court of law. He also asked where were the members of the House of Lords? He stated that he was the duly authorized head of the Nation and the Church, and no one there had any legal authority over him under English law. The High Court simply rejected all of his legal arguments. The King refused to dignify any of the proceedings. He did not recognize this body as being duly authorized to conduct these current proceedings. The proceedings might be referred to as as a modern "dog and pony show" when he was promptly convicted on 27 January, the final judgement was a foregone conclusion. On 27 January, he was beheaded on public platform just outside of the Banqueting Hall (Whitehall, London). A document was written, and signed by the principle members of the Court ordering the Regicide of the King. This document would would have a major impact for the signatures in 1660.

The King's remains was interned at Windsor, rather then at Westminster Abbey. Faced with the consideration of a possible pending claimant of the possible King Charles II, on 7 February 1649, the Rump Parliament simply passed a new law outlawing the Monarchy forever in England.

During January 1649, the Leveller support in Parliament started to declined under the influence of the Army faction of the new Rump Parliament regime. Differences of philosophy and social directions soon began to materialize in the Rump Parliament. Parliament soon started to consolidate its own power and authority of Puritan leanings, and the growing Army influendes.

Lilburne had expressed some initial concerns about the status new government regime. He began to ask the question if the people were any better off now than they were under Charles I? Lilburne had even questioned the legal justification for the Regicide of King Charles I, a touchy point for Parliament.

Growing concerns among the Leveller leadership of the increasing consolidation of controls under the new government, and its leadership led to a number of new Leveller pamphlets to the public. These works were written to rouse the public and the New Model Army to action against the growing perceived civil injustices and the growing power moves of Parliament, and the military under General Cromwell and his government. These pamphlets would eventually contributed to the eventual downfall of the Levellers, and their movement.

The Levellers had becoming a political problem to the stability of Cromwell's new Commonwealth. Reluctantly, Cromwell decided that since he could not control the Leveller movement, it should be crushed from its head down. Cromwell came to see the Levellers as a potential impediment to the existing power structure, and to maintain his own political position.

Lilburne and others in the Leveller leadership were promptly arrested on the orders of Parliament. There were prompt Public's outcry for these actions, and protests against the arrests were immediate and loud.

Lilburne's own arrest prompted some immediate support by a few New Model Army regiments. These troops made certain demands of the government. These actions were promptly crushed by troops under the personal commands of General Cromwell and Lord Thomas Fairfax (1612-71) at Burford (Oxfordshire) in May 1649. The leaders were arrested and punished. The Levellers' major political support basically died at Burford.

The Leveller leaders were soon released except for Lilburne, who would soon face legal charges alone of treason and inciting the public with his political writings. Leveller supporters attendance overflowed during the court trials. Judges and other local officials in London were in fear of their own lives during the public trial. The fear of civil anarchy was seriously considered by many at the time.

Lilburne's trial became a major political event in London. After his famous trial and acquittal, Lilburne was exiled to Bruges, Belgium in 1650. He returned to London and was promptly sent to Newgate Prison on 16 June 1653. He was then exiled to Mount Orgueil Castle (Isle of Jersey) in March of 1654. Cromwell was still afraid of his old friends sharp tongue and his quill.

Lilburne was returned to Dover Castle in 1655 over concerns about his diminishing health. Lilburne was converted to Quakerism while there. Cromwell would finally relented, and released his old friend from prison on a small pension. Lilburne died on 29 August 1657 at Eltham, near Greenwich, South East England.and was buried at Moorsfields, located near Moorgate (London).

The Levellers were among the first social democrats in English history. The Levellers message may have been too democratic, or too progressive for the ruling powers of the "status duo" of the period. Unlike some other radical groups of the period such as the Surrey Diggers who wanted a new society, the Levellers pursued moderate changes for the general benefit of the new growing "working middle class".

Levellers had little or no real political support outside their own numbers, the middling-sort in London and the dissident rank and file members of the New Model Army. There was little or no support from the senior Army officer staff, or the wealthier upper middle classes.

Parliament and the wealthy status quo did not support the social vision or reforms of the Levellers. Their actual social impact was rather limited during the period, except for yhe impact on English history. Even their support within the New Model Army rank and file were somewhat limited in proportion to the entire Mobile Army. The Army was finally paid its back pay by 1650. Many of the political and social reasons of supporting the Levellers by the New Model Army had basically died out by late 1650 after their back pay was received, and John Lilburne was exiled by Parliament.

The Leveller leaders were philosophers, pamphleteers, and paper warriors, not men of physical action themselves. When their power base disappeared, they did too. This is not to say that their impact of the common folk was not without it own affect. Their limited impact on early women's participation in the social and political process looked forward to a new Modern Age.

Some in the Levellers leadership continued their writings after the Restoration (1660). The status of the privileged and the unprivileged had not disappeared to the regret of many. Unlike the Surrey Diggers who wanted to change the society, the Levellers were looking to improve the political status of the new growing middle class with some basic democratic and social principles for most Englishmen.

Many of the Levellers reforms and social democratic principles and co ncerns would not see fruit for over two hundred years. Their message of toleration for others, and compassion for the needy helped set them apart during the Interregnum. Their impact on later British and American constitutional law and political democracy is unfortunately all too often overlooked or forgotten by modern scholars today.


Primary sources

[Anon.]Look to it London, threated to be fired by wilde-fire-zeal,schmatical-faction,& militant-mammon. [1648] [EEb, 1641-1700; 1530:4][Thomason Tracts; 73:E.457(27)] [Wing (CD-ROM,1996) L3010] [ESTCR32487]

______,The Army's Martyr ... (1649)

______,The Declaration and Standard of the Levellers of England; ... (1649)

______,A Discovrse Betwixt Lieutenant Colonel Iohn Lilburn Clo[s]e Pri[s]onser in the Tower of London, and Mr. Hugh Peter Upon May 25,1649 (1649)

______,Englands discoverer, or The levellers creed. (1649) [Wing (2nd ed.) E2960] [ESTCR201929]

______,Halesiados. A message from the Normans, to the generall of the Kentish forces (1648) EEb, 1641-1700; 1778:24] [Wing (2nd ed.) H282]

______,A Great and bloudy fight neer Droghedah in Ireland, ... (1649)[Thomason Tracts; 88.E.573(15)] [Wing (2nd ed.) G1645] [ESTCR206231]

______,The Levellers new remonstrance or declaration sent to His Excellenie The Lord General Fairfax,concerning their present proceedings, and making choice of the a glorious King, and heavenly protector, for the redeeming of them from slavery, ... (1649) [Thomason Tract; 86:E.560(10)] [Wing (2nd ed.) L1803] {ESTCR205977]

______,A Manifestation From Lieutenant Col. John Lilburn, Mr William Walwyn, Mr Thomas Prince, and Mr Richard Overton, (Now Prisoners in the Tower of London) And others, commonly (through unjustly) styled Levellers (1649)

______,The Representation of Colonell Inglesby's reginient in the garrison of Oxford, ... [1649][EEb, 1461-1700; 2050:31] [Wing (2nd ed.) L2183A] [ESTCR222092]

______,Sea-green & blue, see which speaks true. Or Reason contending with treason [1649] [Thomason Tracts; 86:E.599(1)] [Wing (2nd ed.) S2169] [ESTCR203499]

______,Walwins wiles, or the Manifestator maintained viz. Lieu.-col. John Lilburn, Mr. Wil. Walwin, Mr. Richard Overton, and Mr. Tho. Prince. Discovering themselves to be Englands new chains and Irelands back friends... [1649] [Wing P-3351]

______,The Remonstrance or declaration of the Levellers in Scotland... [Thomason Tracts; 93.E.604(2)] [Wing S728] [ESTCR205841]

______,The Anti-Levellers antidote against the most venomous of the serpents, the subtillest monopolizers. Collected by divers officers and soldiers of the army, and other honest people of this nation [1652] [[Thomason Tracts; 126:E.328(2)] [Wing (2nd ed.) W694] [ESTCR206303]

______,The Tryal and sentence of death, to be drawn, hang'd and quartered, prounced against Mr. Mack an apothecary of Salisbury, Mr. John Thorp an inn-keeper of the same town, Mr. Kensey, a chyrurgeon of Newbery, and Mr. Dean, and Mr. Lakes of Hungerfo[r]d. ... (1655) [[Thomason Tracts; 126:E.833(3)] [Wing (2nd ed.) T2170] [ESTCR207528]

[B., H.]The Crafts-men Craft. Or The wiles of the discoverers(1649) [Thomason Tracts; 86:E.561(11)] [Wing (2nd ed.) B73][ESTCR206018]

Bray, William, [fl. 1647-1660],True excellency of God and his testimonies, and our nationall lawes against titular excellency. Or, a letter to the General his Excellency Thomas Lord Fairfax ... [1649] [Thomason Tracts; 88:E.,571(32)] [Wing (2nd ed.) B4315] [ESTCR206130]

______, A Plea for the Peoples Good Old Cause (1659)

______,A Plea for the Peoples Fundamental Liberties and Parliaments (1660)

Brook, C. [printer], [fl. 1649],The Armies Modest Intelligencer. ... [1649] [Thomason Tracts; 84:E.540(7); 84:E.541(2); 84:E.541(28); 84:E.543(4); 84:E.545(3)] [ESTCP1237]

Canne, John [c.1590-c.1667],The Discoverer, Part I. (1649)

______,The Discoverer. Being an answer to a book entituled, Englands new chain, the second part... (1649) [Thomason Tracts; 87:E.564(9)] [Wing (2nd ed.)C437] [ESTCR206100]

Cromwell, Oliver, 1599-1658,A letter from his highnesse the Lord Protector, sent to the north of England, touching loose and idle persons, and such as come from abroad to kindle fire in England, as also for the country to act according to law. VVith a list of the prisoners at Salisbury, and Excester that were not tryed [Thomason Tracts; 126:E.833(19)] [Wing (2nd ed.) C7097A] [ESTCR207536]

Denne, Henry, [1606?-1661],The Levellers Design Discovered[1649]

Everard, William, [fl.1643-49], et al. A Declaration to the Powers of England, ... (1649)

Freeze, James, [fl.1645-1659],Why Not? Eight Queries,Made to the Parliament(1649)

______,A Second Why Not or Eight Queries(1649)

______,The Levllers Vindication or , A Tragicall Story presented unto this common-vvealth, city, and army, ... [1649] [Thomason Tracts; 88:E.573(1)] [Wing (2nd ed.) W3057] [ESTCR206212]

Halhead, Henry, Inclosure thrown open, or, Depopulation depopulated ... (1650) [Thomason Tracts; 95:E.619(2)] [Wing (2nd ed.) H284]

[ J.R.,]Thomson the great kild, or A perfect narrative of the totall routing of the Levellers neere VVellingborough towards Rutlandshire, ...(1649) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1978:13] [Wing (2nd ed.) R34]

Lilburne, John, [1614?-1657],A Worke of the Beast or a relation of a most unchristian censure, executed upon J. Lilburne (1638) [STC 15599]

______,Come Out of Her my People (1638) [STC 15596]

______,[Lilburne's Relation & other tracts] (1638-49)

______,A Copy of a letter written by John Lilburne, close prisoner in the wards of the Fleet, which he sent to Iames Ingram and Henry Hopkins, wardens of the said Fleet. Wherin is fully discovered their great cruelty exercised upon his body [1640?] [EEb, 1475-1640; 843:15][STC (2nd ed.)15597] [ESTCS121096]

______,The Christian mans triall, or, A trve relation of the first apprehension and severall examinations of Iohn Lilbvrne with his censure in Star-chamber,... (1641) [EEb, 1641-1700; 257:E.181, no.7] [Wing L2089]

______,A letter sent from Captain Lilburne, to divers of his friends, citizens, and others of good account in London wherein he fully expresseth the misery of his imprisonment and the barbaros usage of the Cavaliers towards him. (1643) [Wing L-2134]

______,A Copie of a Letter to Mr. William Prinne Esq (1645)

______,Englands Birth Right Justified against all arbitary usurpation, whether regall or parliamentary, or under what vizor soever. ...[1645] [EEb, 1641-1700; 2394:16] [Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) L2103] [ESTCR230394]

______,[Another ed.] [1645] [EEb, 1641-1700; 2050:30] [Wing (2nd ed.) L2103A] [ESTCR220123]

______,A copy of a letter sent by Lieu. Col. John Lilburne to Mr. Wollaston keeper of Newgate or his Deputy (1646) [Thomason Tracts; 246:669.f.10(62)] [Wing L2091]

______,London's Liberty in Chains (1646)

______,Postscrip to The Freeman's Freedon vindicated (1646)

______,England's Freedom, Soldiers Rights (1647)

______,Regall Tyrannie discovered (1647)

______,To the Right Honorable the Commons of England ... the humble petition of thousands wel-affected persons inhabiting the city of London, Westminister ... Southwart, hamblets, and places adjacent. (1648) [Wing L 2188?] [Steele 2794]

______,Englands New Chains Discovered (1649)

______,An Impeachment of High Treason Against Oliver Cromwell, ... (1649)

______,Legall Fundamentall Liberties of the People of England Revived, Asserted, and Vindicated (1649)

______,The second part of Englands new-chaines discovered, or A sad representation of the uncertain and dangerous condition of the Common-Wealth,... (1649) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1971:14] [Wing (2nd ed.) L2181A)] [ESTCR217281]

______,Strength and Weaknesse (1649)

______,To all the affectors and approvers in England, of the London petition of the eleventh of September, 1648, ... [1649] [EEb, 1641-1700; 2050:13] [Wing L2183A] [ESTCR220125]

______,Young men's and apprentices' outcry (1649)

[____], Two petitions presented to the supreame authority of the nation, from thousands of of the lords, owners, and commoners of Lincolneshire, against the Old Court-Levellers, or the property-destroyers, the prerogative undertakers (1650) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1813:18] [Wing L2194] [ESTCR224157]

______,To every individual member of the supream authority of the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England. The humble addresse of Lieu. Col. John Lilburn, by the answer of a most false and scandalous printed petition, ... [1651] [Thomason Tracts; 99.E.647(7)] [Wing L2186] [ESTCR208843]

______,L. Coronel John Lilburne His Apologeticall Narration (1652)

______,The Just Defence of John Lilburne (1653)

______,Walwyn, William and Prince, Thomas. A Manifestation from Lieutenant Col. John Lilburn, Mr. William Walwyn, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Richard Overton (now prisoners in the Tower of London) and others, commonly (through unjustly) styled Levellers, ... (1649) [EEb, 1641-1700; 944:32) [WingL2142 4]

______,[Another ed.] (1979)

Masterson, George [fl.1647-1661], The Triumph stain'd . Being an Answer to trvths trivmph, i.e. a Pamphlet so called, and lately set forth by Mr. John Wildman, ...(1647)

______,Overton, Richard [fl.1631-1664], Prince, Thomas [fl.1640-1653], and Walwyn, William., An Agreement of the Free People of England (1649)

______,A Manifestation (1649)

Nedham, Marchamont, [1620-1678],The Levellers levell'd. Or, The Independents conspiracie to root out monrchie (1647) [Thomason Tracts; 66:E.419(4)] [Wing (2nd ed.) N394] [ESTCR202963]

Overton, Richard, [fl.1642-1663],New Lambeth Fayre (1642)

______,Humble Remonstrance and Complaint of ... Prisoners ... for Debt(1643)

______,Mans Mortallitie (1644)

______,The Araignement of Mr.Persecution (1645)

______,An Arrow against all tryants (1646)

______,Divine observations upon the London ministers'letter against toleration (1646)

______,An Appeale from the Degenerate Representive Body (1647)

______,The Commoners`Complaint (1647)

______,The Baiting of the great bull of Bashan unfolded (1649) [Wing O624] [ESTCR204572]

______,Hunting for the Foxes, or the Grandie Deceivers Unmasked (1649)

______,To the supream authority of England, the representors of the people in Parliament assembled, the humble petition of Richard Overton, late prisoner in Newgate by the House of Lords, ... [1649] [EEb, ; Tract suppl.; E1:2(Harl. 5921(100)][Thomason Tracts; 84:E.546(1)] [Wing (2nd ed.) O636] [ESTCR206080]

______,The Picture of the Council of State (1649)

______,Man Wholly Mortal (1655)

______, A Perambulatory Word (1659)

______,and Walwyn, W.,A Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens(1646)

Overton, Robert, [ca.1609-ca. 1668],The Declaration of the officers of the garrison of Hull in order to the peace and settlement of the kingdome. ...(1649) [Thomason Tracts; 84.E:545 (17)] [Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) D734] [ESTCR206042]

Pembroke, Philip Herbert, Earl of, [1584-1650],The speech of Phillip Herbert,late Earle of Pembrook and Montgomery, in the House of Commons, ... (1649) [Thomason Tracts; 88:E.571(25)] [Wing (2nd ed.) S4863A] [ESTCR206127]

Price, John, [fl.1638-1673],A Spirituall Snapsacke for the Parliament Souldiers [1643]

______,Honey out of the Rock [1644]

______,Unity our Duty [1645]

______,and William Kiffin, [1616-1701],Walwins Wiles or the Manifestators Manifested (1649)

Sexby, Edward,[ca.1616-1658], For our faithful and ever honored commanders, the right honorable his Excellency, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Major General Skipton, Lieutenant General Cromwell, presented to them in the behalfe of eight regiments of horse, ... [1647] [EEb, 1641-1700; 2468:3] [EEb; Tract suppl.; C3:1(816.m.1(1);C29:1(190.g.13(199)][Thomason Tracts; 246:669.f.11(9)] [Wing (CD_ROM, 1996) S2826] [ESTCR210418]

______,The Case of th Army Truly Stated (1647)

Walker, Clement, [1595-1651],The Tryal of Lieutenant Colonel John Lilburn (1649)

Walwyn, William [1600-1681],The povver of love (1643) [Thomason tracts; 168:E.1206(2)] [Wing (2nd ed.) W690A] [ESTCR208782]

______,A helpe to the right understnding of a discourse concerning independency (1644) [Thomason tract; 44.E259(2)] [Wing W683B] [ESTCR212478]

______,Englands Lamentable Slavery (1645)

______,A Help to the right Understanding of a Discourse Concerning Independency (1645) [Thomason tracts; 44:E.259(2)] [Wing W683B][ESTCR212478]

______,The Power of Love (1645)

______,An Antidote against Master Edwards his old and new poyson, intended to preserve his long distempered nation from a most dangerous relaps ... (1646) [[Thomason Tracts; 167:E.1184(4)] [Wing (2nd ed.) W680] [ESTCR208196]

[_____],Jvst man in bonds (1646) [Wing W685A] [ESTCR186225]

______,A Prediction of Mr. Edwards his Conversion and Recantation (1646) [Thomason tracts; 167:E.1184(5)] [Wing W691] [ESTCR208197]

[____],Tolleration justified, and persecution condemn'd. In an answer or examination, of the London-ministers Letter ... (1646) [Wing T1773]

______,[Another ed.] (1940)

______,A Word in season, or, Motives to peace, accomodation and unity,'twixt Presbyterian and Independent brethern. ... (1646) [Thomason tracts; 167:E.1184(3)] Wing (2nd ed.)W695B] [ESTCR208192]

______,Gold tried in the fire (1647)

______,A Still and soft voice from the scriptures vvitnessing them to be the vvord of God (1647)[EEb, 1641-1700; 1624:14] [Wing W692 4]

______,[Another ed.] (1985)

______,Some observations on the late dangerous petition presented to the House of Commons, September 11, 1648 (1648) [Wing (2nd ed.) W691C]

[_____],No Papist, no Presbyterian (1648)

______,The fountain of slaunder discovered [1649] [ESTCR204437]

______,A VVhisper in the Eare of Mr. Thomas Edwards, minister. [1649] [[Thomason Tracts; 53:E.328(2)] [Wing (2nd ed.) W694] [ESTCR200666]

______,The Vanitie of the Present Churches (1649)

______,Walwyns Just Defence against the asperations cast upon him in a late un-Christian pamphlet entituled Waywyns wiles (1649) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1370:16] [Wing W685 4]

______,Juries justified: or, A word of correction to Mr. Henry Robinson; of or his seven objections against the trial of causes, by juries of twelve men [1651] [ESTCR204167]

______,God Save the King, or A sermon of thanksgiving, for His Majesties happy return to the throne (1660) [ESTCR203977]

[_____], A touch-stone for physick directing by evident marks and characters to such medicines as without purgers, vomiters, bleedings,issues, minerals, ... (1667) [EEb, 1641-1700; 338:1] [Wing W693 4]

______,[Another ed.] (1969)

______,Physick for families, ... (1669) [EEb; 1641-1700; 904:34][Wing W687 4]

______,[Another ed.] (1674)

______,[Another ed.] (1681)

______,[Another ed.] (1978)

______,[Another ed.] (1983) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1391:18]

______,and Goodwin, John[1594?-1665], The Compassionate Samaritane unbinding the conscience, and powring oyle into the wounds which have beene made upon the separation recommending their future welfare to the serious thoughts and carefull endeavors of all love and peace unity of common wealths men ... (1644) [EEb, 1641-1700; 1079:14] [Wing W681B] [ESTCR208770]

______,[Another ed.] (1980)

White, Francis, [d.1657], A True relation of the proceedings in the businesse of Burford. With other discourse of publike concernment (1649) [Wing (2nd ed.) W1766] [Thomason Tract; E.574(26)]

Wildman, John, [1621-1693],The Argument of the People (1647)

______,The Case of the Army Truly Stated (1647)

______,Truth Triumph,or Treachery Anatomized (1648)

______,and Walwyn, William, [1600-1681],Putney Projects. Or the old serpent in a new forme. ... (1647) [Thomason tracts; 66:E.421(19)][Wing W2171] [ESTCR204542]

Winstanley, Gerrard, [c.1609-1676?],A New-yeers gift for the Parliament and Armie shewing what the kingly power is, and that the cause of those that are called Diggers is the life and marrow of that cause the Parliament hath declared for, and the Army fought for, ... (1650) [Thomason Tracts: 90; E.587(6)] [Wing (2nd ed.) W3050] [ESTCR206278]

Secondary sources

Abbott, W.C.,(ed.),The Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (1937-47)[4 vols.]

Ashley, M.,John Wildman, Plotter and Postmaster (1947)

Aylmer, G.E.,(ed.), The Levellers in the English Revolution (1975)

______,"Gentlemen Levellers", Past and Present 49,1970

Bass, J.D., "Levellers: The Economic Reduction of Political Equality in the Putney Debates,1647",Quarterly Journal of Speech 77,1991

Brailford, H.N.,The Levellers and the English Revolution, Hill, C.,(ed.) (1961)

Cromartie, A.,"The Constitutional Revolution: the transformation of political culture in Early Stuart England", Past and Present 163,1999

Davis, J.C.,"The Levellers and Democracy"Past and Present 40,1968

______,"The Levellers and Christianity", In Politics, Religion and the English Civil War, Manning, B.,(ed.) (1973)

______,"The Levellers and democracy", In The Intellectual revolution of the Eighteenth Century,Webster, C.(ed.), (1974)

Frank, J.,The Levellers: A History of the Writings of Three Seventeenth-Century Social Democrats: John Lilburne, Richard Overton, William Walwyn (1955)

Gentles, I., The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland, 1645-1653 (1992)

______. "London Levellers in the English Revolution: The Chidleys and their Circle", Journal of Economic History 29,1978

______,"The Struggle for London in the second civil war", Historical Journal 26,1983

Gibb, M. A., John Lilburne the Leveller, a Christian democrat (1947)

Gleissner, R.A.,"The Levellers and natural law: the Putney Debates of 1647",Journal of British Studies 20,1980

Gooch, G.P.,The History of English Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century (1898)

Gough, J.W.,"The Agreement of the people", History 15,1931

______,Fundamental Law in English Constitutional History (1955)

Gregg, P.,Free-born John: A Biography of John Lilburne (1961)

Haller, W.,(ed.),Tracts on Liberty in the Puritan Revolution (1933-34;1965)[3 vols.]

______,and Davies, G.,The Leveller Tracts, 1647-53 (1944)

______, Liberty and reformation in the Puritan revolution (1955)

Hampsher-Monk, I., "The political theory of the Levellers: Putney, property and Professor Macpherson", Political Studies 24,1976

Hill, C.,The World Turned Upside Down : Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (1972;1991)

______,"The Norman Yoke", In Puritanism and Revolution, Hill, C.,(ed.)(1958)

______,"Levellers and True Levellers", In The World Turned Upside Down : Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (1972;1991)

______,"From Lollards to Levellers", In Rebels and their Causes, Cornforth, M.,(ed.) (1978)

Himbury, D.M.,"The Religious Beliefs of the Levellers", Baptist Quarterly 33,1954

Holorenshaw, H.,The Levellers and the English Revolution (1939)

______,The Levellers and Wing Democracy in the English Civil War (1940)

Houston, A.C.,"A way of settlement: the Levellers, monopolies and the public interest",History of Political Thought 9,1993

Howell, R., and Brewster, D.E.,"Reconstructing the Levellers: The Evidence of The Moderate",Past and Present 46,1970

Hughes, A., "Gender and politics in Leveller literature", In Political Culture and Cultural Politics in early modern Europe, Amussen, S.A., and Kishlansky, M.A.,(eds.) (1995)

Lutaud, O., "Le parti politique 'NIVELEUR' et la priemer Revolution anglaise, (Essai d'Historiographie" Revue Historique 227,1962

McMichael, J.R.,and Taft, B.,(eds.)

Macpherson, C.B.,The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (1962)

______,"The Levellers: Franchise and Freedom", In The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (1962)

Manning, B.S.,(ed.),Politics, Religion and the English Civil War (1973)

______, "The Levellers and Religion", In Radical Religion in the English Revolution, McGregor, J.F. and Reay, B., (eds.) (1984)

Morrill, J.S.,The Nature of the English Revolution; Essays by John Morrill (1993)

Morton, A.L.,(ed.), Freedom in Arms: A Selection of Leveller Writings (1978)

______,"Leveller democracy-fact or myth?", In The World of the Ranters: Religious Radicalism in the English Revolution (1979)

Peacock, E.,"Thomas Rainsborough",Archaeologica 46,1880

Pearl, V.,"London's counter-revolution", In The Interregnum: the quest for a settlement, Aylmer, G.E.(ed.) (1972)

Pease, T.C.,The Leveller Movement (1916;repr.1965)

Ramsey, R.W.,Henry Ireton (1949)

Robertson, D.B.,The Religious Foundations of Leveller Democracy (1951)

Robinson, J.,The Early Life of John Lilburne: A Study in Puritan Political Thought, Ph.D.(thesis), University of Calif.,Los Angeles (1946)

Sanderson, J.,But the People's Creatures: the Philosophical Basis of the English Civil War (1989)

Seaberg, R.B.,"The Norman Conquest and the Common Law: Levellers and the argument from continuity", Historical Journal 24,1981

Sharp, A.,(ed.),The English Levellers (1998

______,"John Lilburne's discourse of law", Political Science 40,1988

______,"John Lilburne and the Long Parliament's Book of declarations: a radical's exploitation of the words of authority", History of Political Thought 9,1993

Shaw, H.,The Levellers (1968)

Taft, B.,The writings of William Walwyn (1989)

Thomas, K.V.,"The Levellers and the Franchise", In The Interregnum: the Quest for Settlement, 1646-1660 , Aylmer, G. E. (ed.) (1972)

Williamson, G.,"Milton and the Moralist Heresy", Studies in Philology, 32,1935

Williamson, H.R.,Four Stuart Portraits (1949)

Wolfe, D.M.,Leveller Manifestos of the Puritan Revolution, Hill, C.,(ed.) (1961)

______,(ed.) Leveller Manifestos (1967)

______, "Lilburne's Notes on Milton", Modern Language Notes 54,1941

Woodhouse, A.S.P., (ed.),Puritanism and liberty: being the Army Debates (1647-49) (1974 rep.)

Woolrych, A.,Soldiers and Statesmen: The General Council of the Army and its Debates 1647-1648 (1987)

Wootton, D.,Leveller democracy, In The Cambridge history of political thought, 1450-1700, Burns, J, H, and Goldie, M. (eds.) (1991)

Zagorin, P.,A History of Political Thought in the English Revolution (1954;repr.1965)

Top Up Next Page Next Page

Last Updated: 22-03-14 20:43:20-0800
Copyright 1997-2014 ExLibris.org. All Rights Reserved