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Anabaptists

Summary

The term Anabaptist has come to be applied to a broad religious movement at the beginning of the Radical Reformation (1520-1580). Anabaptism was not a centralized or homogeneous sect. The early origins of the Anabaptist are still being debated. There have been estimates of up to forty independent sects within the general category of what has been termed Anabaptism.

Anabaptist comes from the Greek meaning "rebaptiser". The term was usually used as a form of derision. Individuals did not refer to themselves as Anabaptists, some groups used the term Brethren to describe themselves. By 1525, Anabaptist congregations were spreading across most of German speaking Europe.

Continental Anabaptist congregations rejected the corrupted doctrines and practices of the Roman Church, and the new Reformed Protestants Churches of the Reformation. Anabaptists sought instead to reestablish a true Christian community based on their concepts of the early New Testaments congregations. They saw themselves as the new saints of the one true Church.

Regional leaders, or "Spirituals" as there were also known often established the norms for the local Anabaptist congregation under their leadership. These leaders often espoused widely varied messages to their congregation. Some of them were marked early as enemies of the State and hunted down, imprisoned, or executed.

Most Anabaptist congregations held a general core of spiritual values. They attributed little importance to most questions of theology, and religious ceremonies in general. They placed a high value on the inspired Word of God, and a love for their fellow man. Discipleship was a valued tenet. They shunned contact with the corrupted worldly society outside their own communities.

A central issue of theological disagreement with the Anabaptist position was the question of infant baptism. Anabaptists argued that infant baptism had no New Testament authority. For the Anabaptist, the approved methodology of baptism was a personal pledge of faith of a committed believer coupled with their act of "adult baptism" which would than assure the converts' real spiritual salvation. This was known as "believers baptism" or "rebaptism".

Baptism became a metaphor of Anabaptism, the wakening or rebirth to a new religious nature or life. Contrary to general belief, the use of immersion for baptism was not considered the norm among Anabaptists, but it was not excluded.

The Eucharist or Holy Communion was rejected as a sacrament, but was observed as a memorial service based on New Testament ideals. They preached complete religious freedom based on a literal Bible, and the total independent control of their own congregations and the election of their own clergy. They postulated their own unique form of succession by their Elders only, an Anabaptist form of apostolic succession.

Anabaptists advocated the doctrine of free will as did the Roman Church and others. They denounced the predestination theology of Calvinism. Anabaptists also embraced the doctrine of the "celestial flesh of Christ", where Christ did not develop from the mortal flesh of his mother Mary. Some Anabaptists preached a form of anti-Trinitarianism while other held traditional views on the Trinity.

Anabaptists held a rather strict social ethic. They preached the separation of the Church and State, including the abolishment of any State religion. They viewed the State as a potential enemy to their faith, and community. Those who "carried the Sword" for the State were considered in a state of sin, and were to be avoided and thought to be condemned in the eyes of God, also known as Magistery.

Anabaptists did not reject all aspects of "rendering unto Caesar", but they were generally quite limited in what they did allow. Members were often fined or imprisoned for their acts of civil disobedience, the breaking of local codes and laws such as refusing to take public oaths, paying taxes, and the taking up of arms.

A few Anabaptist leaders espoused their own radical beliefs of the imminent coming of the Millennium of the Saints. These more militant congregations started to prepare for the overthrow of the current ungodly and corrupted world of Man. Some of these militant Anabaptist groups developed into quasi-communistic communities.

Militant Anabaptist uprisings were occurring in Europe. The former Catholic town of Münster in Westfalen had been transformed into a bastion of militant Anabaptism (1532-35). Catholic and Protestant Europe raised an army to oust these militant Anabaptists. The town was put under siege in Jan. 1535. It was captured a few months later by traitors escaping from the city. Münster became a general hew and cry against all Anabaptists, not just the militant few.

Based on their radical theology of social change and religious beliefs, the Anabaptists came to be persecuted by most civil authorities and State officials in Europe. Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, and the Catholic Church soundly denounced the Anabaptists and their cause.

By 1540, most of the early regional Anabaptist leaders had been either imprisoned or had been executed. Persecutions against the Anabaptists continued in various portions of Europe into the 1580's.

Some of the more pacifist congregations were able to survived these purges in Holland, and in Northern Germany under the leadership of the Dutch priest, Menno Simons (1496-1561) a.k.a. Simonszoon

.

Religious toleration was finally secured for these congregations in Holland by the decree of William I (1533-1584) a.k.a. William the Silent in 1577. Some of these Anabaptist congregations later developed into other sects, such as the Mennonites and the Hutterites.

British Anabaptists

In the late Tudor period (1530's-1603), the distinctions between the Anabaptist and the other Continental radical sects were often vague or blurred. English officials often lumped many European sects under the general heading of Anabaptism. Anabaptist became a default term for many a radical theology.

Foreign Anabaptists were known in England from as early as the 1534's mostly by former Dutch or Flemish congregations seeking religious freedom. Anabaptists often found in England a kindred society especially among its former Lollard communities. The English port communities were favored havens.

Henry VIII (1509-1547) was known for his persecution of foreign Anabaptists. Between 1535-1546 large numbers of foreign "Anabaptists" were executed or burned at the stake for heresy. In 1535, some 25 Dutch Anabaptists who had fled the Amsterdam Uprisings were quickly rounded up. They were arrested, condemned for heresy and burned at the stake within the month.

William Tyndale(1494?-1536), the English Bible translator and dissident, was pursued by the English Church authorities to burn his Bible translations. The agents of Henry VIII had tried to capture Tyndale. This was finally accomplished at Antwerp in 1535. At the request of King Henry VIII's, Tyndale was ordered to be executed by the Emperor's decree for his heretical beliefs including alleged Anabaptist views. After being held eighteen months in prison, he was finally strangled and burnt at the stack at Vilvorde under the heresy laws of Holland on 6 October 1536. Tyndale's translations were banned in England by King Henry VIII in 1537. Others dissidents were to suffer similar fates for holding alleged Anabaptist views unde King Henry VIII.

During the reign of King Edward VI(1547-1553), under the ever the watchful eye of William Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury (1533-1556) , a less proactive strategy was employed by the Crown towards dissenters. A reformed Protestant philosophy was adopted towards many radical dissident groups. Heresy laws under the broad term of Anabaptist was still on the books but without the same vigor or consequences of outcome.

Thomas Putto (fl. 1549-1554),a tanner from Colchester, and an alleged Anabaptist preacher was active in London ca. 1549-1554. He disrupted religious services, espoused Anabaptist beliefs and engaged in lewd preaching. His radical behavior caused concerns among many London officials of the period.

English Anabaptists became active after 1550 basedon the availability of Anabaptist literature in English translations. Anti-Anabaptist literature was available from the early 1550's. Actual numbers of English Anabaptists during this period are difficult to determine. Many divergent groups held common Anabaptist views, but were not themselves Anabaptists. The Free Will Men, a dissident sect, were sometimes referred to as Anabaptists by their critics.

A Strangers Church (Reformed) was established at Austin Friars (London) by order of Edward VI in 1550. This congregation was modeled on the Continental reformed churches, and were generally considered outside of the local bishops control. Other similar congregations would appear in other large communities.

The Crown needed foreign artisans and business in England. The Strangers Church was a concession to foreign reformed church members. It also served as a control point for those reformed church members from mingling into the local parishes.

Ironically these congregations were far more reformed in actual fact than anything officially allowed under the current Church regulations. Anabaptist's worshiped here, or in secret. Many members of these Strangers Churches often attended other local parish services which facilitated the spread their beliefs into the larger general community.

Joan Bocher(d. 1550)(a.k.a. Boucher, Butcher) also known as Joan of Kent,or Joan Knelwas an prominent Anabaptist and a member of the Strangers Church. A prominent person, she was held in jail for a year before she was finally sentenced and condemned to be burned at the stack on May 2, 1550 at Smithfield (London) for holding heretical views of Christ. Ironically her judges BishopNicholas Ridley (c.1500-1555) and Bishop Hugh Latimer (c.1485-1555) were themselves in turn burnt at the stake at Oxford in 1555 for heresy under Queen Mary I.

During the short reign of Queen Mary I(1553-1558) a vigorous campaign of persecution was pursued by the Crown against all religious nonconformity, i.e. non-Catholics. Mary's operatives were most effective in fulfilling their charge. Many Christians died for their beliefs during her short reign. Many were simply labelled as Anabaptists and condemned to death.

Under Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), Anabaptist activity openly returned. The pursuit of heresy was again enjoined by the Church and Crown. In 1590, Anabaptists were ordered to leave England. They had an option to either join the National Church, or the Strangers Church at Austin Friars (London) which had been reestablished under Elizabeth I, but most continued to meet in secret. The Crown was busy trying to keep control of all religious dissidents that were perceived as potential problems to the State and to the Crown.

Under King James IV/I(1603-1625) similar heresy policies were continued by the Crown to keep everyone under control. Conform to the law, and all would be well. Anabaptist influences continued to migrate from the Continent, as well as those returning English Separatists from Holland. The influence of the foreign Anabaptists residing in England is still an open question.

The family Legatt or Legate consisting of three brothers, all were active in and around London ca. 1590-1612. They were cited as having Anabaptist or Seeker beliefs. One was drowned, a second died in prison for heresy. Bartholomew Legatt (1575?-1612) and Edward Wightman (d. 1612), a.k.a. Thomas Withman, they were burnt at the stake in 1612. These may have been the last two heresy burnings in England. After 1612 most heretics were simply sent to prison and there left to rote out of the public eye.

English Separatist congregations in exile on the Continent during 1580-90's may have provide a conduit for early English Anabaptist traditions into England. Separatist congregations such as Francis Johnson(1562-1618), Barrowist congregation in Holland ,andJohn Smyth (ca. 1554-1612) in Holland from 1593-1614 have often been cited as possible sources of Anabaptist influences into England. Thomas Helwys' congregation which had also been associated with John Smyths' congregations in Holland returned to London about 1612. Helwy has been cited as the first English Baptist congregation on English soil.

During the period from 1612-1660, the term Anabaptist was often used indiscriminately to describe or smear certain sects who seemed to hold or practiced believers baptism or baptism by immersion by their opponents. Theseoften included the General Baptist, the Particular Baptist, and other sects of the Interregnum.

Oliver Cromwell(1599-1658) was criticized by some for having officers under his command in his New Model Army that may have held Anabaptist sentiments. Anabaptist sentiments were not limited only to the lower classes of Stuart society.

English Anabaptists views influenced other dissenters views including: Brownists, Barrowists, the early Baptists, and other nonconformists groups. Small pockets of support continued into the 18th century. Like the Lollards before them, Anabaptists submerged themselves into the fabric of their local communities. Being an Anabaptist, and holding some Anabaptist views still clouds the history of this period.

A SELECT ANABAPTIST BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources

[Anon.] An Answer to a Epistle, written by Thomas Salthouse, to the churches of the Anabaptists, so called [1660?]; [Wing A3351C] [ESTCR224241]

[Anon.], The Brownists Conventicle (1641)

[Anon.], A Confession of faith of several Congregations or Churches of Christ in London, which are Commonly (though unjustly) called Anabaptists. ... (1651); [EEb, 1641-1700; 2048:11] [Wing C5786]

[Anon.], A Declaration of Several of the People called Anabaptists (1659)

[Anon.], The Third Address of Some Persons, known by the name of Anabaptist, in the County of Lincoln, ... [EEb; tract suppl.; C5:1(C.112.h.4(74); C15:2(816.m.24(12)] [Wing T897][ESTCR225764]

[Anon.] To the Supreme Authority of the Nation, the Parliament of the Common-wealth of England, &c. The Humble Petition and Recantation of many Dis-satisfied Persons, Commonly known by the name of Anabaptist (1660); [EEb, 1641-1700;2046:29] [Wing T1730bA]

[Anon.], A treuue nyeuu tydinges of the Woderfull worcks of the Rebaptisers of Müster in Westuall [s.n.] [STC 564]

Ainsworth, Henry, 1571-1622? A Censure upon a Dialogue of the Anabaptists Intituled A Description of what God hath Predestined Concerning man (1630); [STC 226]

______. A Seasonable Discourse, or A Censure upon a dialogue of the Anabaptists, intituled, A Description of what God hath Predestinated Concerning man; is tryed and Examined ... (1644); [EEb, 1641-1700; 80:3, 237:E.50, no. 8] [Wing A-812]

Allen, RIchard, [b. 1604/05], An Antidote Against Heresy: or A Preservative for Protestants against the poyson of Papists, Anabaptists, Arrians, Arminians, &c. and their Pestilent Errours. ... [1641]; [Thomason Tracts; 166:E.1168(2); 251:1168(2)] [Wing (2nd ed.) A1045A] [ESTCR208803]

Baillie, Robert, [1599-1662]. Anabaptism, the tvre Fovntaine of Independency, Brownisme, Antimony, Familisome, and the most of the other errours, which for the time due trouble the Church of England, ... (1647); [Wing B452A] [EEb,1641-1700;1626:44]

Calvin, John, 1509-1564. Omnia opera. Vol. VII, Brieve Instruction pour armer tous bons fideles contre les erreurs de la secte des Anabaptistes.

Chamberlen, Peter, [1601-1683], A Letter to Mr. Braine Br. of Divinity concerning an Administration of Water-Baptisme [1650]; [EEb, 1641-1700; 1664:14] [Wing C1897]

Cooche, Robert [ ], The Confutation of the Errors of the Careless by Necessity (ca.1557)

England. Sovereign (1509-1547 : Henry VIII) A Proclamation Concerning Heresie. Proclamations 1534-04-22 [1535]; [EEb. 1475-1640; 25:05] [STC 7785][ESTCS110336]

England and Wales. Sovereign (1558-1603 : Elizabeth I) By the Quene The Quenes Maiestie Vnderstandinge, that of late Tyme sundrye persons Beynge infected with Certayne Daungerous and Pernicious opinions, in matters of religion, Contrraarye to the Fayth of the Church of Chryste, as Anabaptistes and suche lyke ... Proclamations. 1560-09-22 [1560]; [EEb, 1475-1640; 455:21] [STC 7916] [ESTCS112095]

Featley, David, [1582-1645]. Katabaptistai kataptystoi. The Dippers, dipt. Or, The Anabaptists duck'd and plung'd over head and eares, at a Disputation in Southwark. ... (1645) [Wing F858] [ESTCR233959]

Hart, Henry, [fl.1549]. A godly newe short treatyse instructyng euery parson, howe they shulde trade theyr lyues in [the] Imytacyon of vertu ... [1549?]; [STC 12887.7] [ESTCS92872]

______. A Godlie Exhortation to all suche as professe the Gospell, wherein they are by the swete promises thereof prouoked [and] styrred vp to folow the same in liuing [1549]

James I, King of England, 1566-1625 and Bacon, Francis, 1561-1626. A true relation of the commissions and warrants of the condemnation and burning of Bartholomew Legatt and Thomas Withman, the one in West-Smithfield, London, the other at Lichfield, in the year, 1611. Signed with K. James his own hand. In which is laid open their most Blasphemous Ranters in these times profess to be their new lights (1651); [EEb, 1641-1700; 1967:16] [Wing (CD-ROM, 1996) J146] [ESTCR216993]

Jeffery, William, 1616-1693. The Humble Petition and Representation of the Sufferings of Several Peaceful, and Innocent Subjects, called by the name of Anabaptist, ... [1661]; [EEb, 1641-1700; 1779:4] [Wing H3444] [ESTCR214927]

Johnson, Francis,1562-1618, A Brief Treatise against two errours of the Anabaptists (1609); [STC14659]

______, A Christian plea Concerning three Treatises: I. The first pouching the Anabaptist, & others Mainteyning some like errors with them. II. The Second, touching such Christians, as now are here, commonly called Remonstrants or Arminians. III. The Third, touching the Reformed Churches, with whom my self agree in the faith of the Gospel our our Lord Jesus Christ (1617); [STC 14661]

Knox, John, [c1513-72]. An Answer to a great nomber of Blasphemous Cauilltions written by an Anabaptist (1560); [STC 15060]

Müntzer, Thomas, [1490?-1525]. Schriften.

______, Thomas Müntzers Briefwechsel (1931)

______, Thomas Müntzers politische Schriften (1950)

Taylor, John, [1580-1653]. A Brownists conventicle: or an assemble of Brownists, Separatists, and non-conformists, ... (1641); [EEb, 1641-1700; 254:E.164[13] [Thomason Tracts; 29:E.164[13] [Wing (2nd ed.) T436][ESTCR532]

______. A Swarme of Sectaries and Schismatiques (1641)

Thache, Thomas, [b. 1616/17- ], Gainsayer convinced: or, An Answer to a certain paper, subscribed and sent by certain Seduced and Seditious People to a minister in the countrey; ... (1649); [Thomason tracts; 87:E.568(1)] [Wing T827] [ESTCR206240]

Well-Willer and Daily Desierer of a Happy Settlement of Truth and Peace. An Answer to a Scandalous Paper lately sent to the Righ Honourable the Lord Mayor, touching a late Dispute intended by the Anabaptists with the Presbyterians. ...(1646); [Thomason tracts:57:e.355(16)] [Wing A3345] [Whitley 66-646] [ESTCR201115]

Secondary Sources

Bax, E.B., Rise and Fall of the Anabaptists (1903)

Blanke, F., "Das Reich der Weidertäufer zu Münster 1534-1535" Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 37,1940

Clasen, C., Anabaptism: A Social History, 1525-1618 ... (1972)

Estep, W.R., The Anabaptist story (1975)

______. (ed.) Anabaptist Beginnings (1523-1533): A Source Book (1976)

Heath, R., Anabaptism from its rise at Zwickau to its fall in Münster (1895)

Heriot, D., "Anabaptism in England during the 16th and 17th Centuries", Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society 12,1935-36

______. "Anabaptism in England during the 17th Century" Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society 13,1937-39

Horst, I.B., "England" In Mennonite Encyclopedia (4 vols., 1955-59)

______. Radical Brethren: Anabaptism and the English Reformation in 1558 (1972)

Horsch, J., "The Rise and Fall of of the Anabaptists of Münster", Mennonite Quarterly Review 10,1935

Klassen, P.J., The Economics of Anabaptism, 1525-1560 (1964)

Kawerau, P., Melchior Hoffmann als religiöser Denker (1954)

Littell, F.H., The Anabaptist view of the Church (2nd ed., 1958)

______. The Origins of Sectarian Protestantism: A Study of the Anabaptist View of the Church (1964)

Loades, D., "Anabaptism and English Sectarianism in the Mid-Sixteenth Century", Studies in Church History 2,1979

Meusel, A., Thomas Müntzer und seine Zeit (1952)

Payne, E.A., The Anabaptists of the 16th century (1949)

______. "Who were the Baptists?" Baptist Quarterly 16,1955-56

Smithson, R.J., The Anabaptists(1935)

Stayer, J.M., Anabaptist and the Sword (1972)

______."Hans Hut's doctrine of the sword: an attempted solution" Mennonite Quarterly Review 39,1965

______. Pachull, W.O., and Deppermann, K., "From Monogenesis to Polygenesis: The Historical Discussion of Anabaptist Origins", Mennonite Quarterly Review, 49,1975

White, R.B., "The Baptists of Reading, 1652-1715", Baptist Quarterly 22,1967-68

______. "The doctrine of the Church in the Particular Baptist confession of 1644", Journal of Theological Studies N.S. 19,1968

Whitley, W.T., The Baptists of London [n.d.]

Williams, G.H., The Radical Reformation (1962)

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